Ethnobiology and Conservation 2023-02-01T11:14:51+00:00 Rômulo Romeu da Nóbrega Alves Open Journal Systems Food Biodiversity as an Opportunity to Address the Challenge of Improving Human Diets and Food Security 2022-12-29T14:25:33+00:00 Michelle Jacob Alice Medeiros Souza Aline Martins de Carvalho Carlos Frederico Alves de Vasconcelos Neto Daniel Tregidgo Danny Hunter Fillipe de Oliveira Pereira Guilhermo Ros Brull Harriet V. Kunhlein Lara Juliane Guedes da Silva Larissa Mont'Alverne Jucá Seabr Mariana de Paula Drewinski Nelson Menolli Jr Patricia Carignano Torres Pedro Mayor Priscila F. M. Lopes Rafael Ricardo Vasconcelos da Silva Sávio Marcelino Gomes Juliana Kelly da Silva-Maia <p>Scientists have warned for several years that food systems have become major drivers of environmental degradation, malnutrition, and food insecurity. In this paper, we present arguments from specialists that suggest that, in the transition to more sustainable food systems, biodiversity and food security can be mutually supportive, rather than conflicting goals. We have divided the opinions of these scientists into two "Big Topics". First, they examine the synergies and challenges of the intersection of biodiversity and food security. In the second section, they explain how various forms of food biodiversity, such as mushrooms, terrestrial wild animals, aquatic animals, algae, and wild plants, can contribute to food security. Finally, we present three main pathways that, according to these experts, could guide the transition toward biodiversity and food security in food systems. </p> 2023-02-10T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Michelle Jacob, Alice Medeiros Souza, Aline Martins de Carvalho, Carlos Frederico Alves de Vasconcelos Neto, Daniel Tregidgo, Danny Hunter, Fillipe de Oliveira Pereira, Guilhermo Ros Brull, Harriet V. Kunhlein, Lara Juliane Guedes da Silva, Larissa Mont'Alverne Jucá Seabr, Mariana de Paula Drewinski, Nelson Menolli Jr, Patricia Carignano Torres, Pedro Mayor, Priscila F. M. Lopes, Rafael Ricardo Vasconcelos da Silva, Sávio Marcelino Gomes, Juliana Kelly da Silva-Maia Forest species for biocultural restoration in eastern Amazon, Brazil 2023-01-30T20:08:03+00:00 Vivian do Carmo Loch Danielle Celentano Raysa Valeria Carvalho Saraiva Swanni T. Alvarado Flávia de Freitas Berto Raymony Tayllon Serra João Castro Barroso Tatuxa'a Awa Guajá Guillaume Xavier Rousseau <p> <span class="fontstyle0">Amazon deforestation damages nature, people, and their closer biocultural relationship, eroding fundamental elements for its reproduction. The recognition and use of traditional knowledge to plan and implement restoration efforts are essential to its success. This study identified forest tree species of biocultural value for indigenous communities, </span><span class="fontstyle2">quilombolas</span><span class="fontstyle0">, and settled farmers in Maranhão state, eastern Brazilian Amazon. Semi-structured interviews, informal conversations, Free Lists, and guided walks were carried out in three different landscapes to identify species with ecological importance and/or use-value according to local communities’ perceptions. Eight categories of species use were defined (food, woody, medicinal, income, cultural, hunting, honey, and energy); and the Smith Salience Index (S) was utilized to identify species with higher importance. A total of 58 native trees (</span><span class="fontstyle3">S &gt; </span><span class="fontstyle4">0</span><span class="fontstyle3">.</span><span class="fontstyle4">1</span><span class="fontstyle0">) were listed as biocultural species, five of which were cited for ecological importance only, without a use-value associated. The highest number of species with cultural salience (</span><span class="fontstyle3">S &gt; </span><span class="fontstyle4">0</span><span class="fontstyle3">.</span><span class="fontstyle4">1</span><span class="fontstyle0">) was reported in the indigenous group (47), followed by settlers (11) and </span><span class="fontstyle2">quilombolas </span><span class="fontstyle0">(9). Among the indigenous, we identified a higher number of uses for the same species, and a remarkable spiritual relationship with plants from their cosmological vision. The reproduction of biocultural values in societies needs to receive more attention in the restoration science and praxis. The identification of species of biocultural value can serve as an important ally for the assertive design of conservation and restoration initiatives.</span> </p> 2023-03-10T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Vivian do Carmo Loch, Danielle Celentano, Raysa Valeria Carvalho Saraiva, Swanni T. Alvarado, Flávia de Freitas Berto , Raymony Tayllon Serra, João Castro Barroso, Tatuxa'a Awa Guajá, Guillaume Xavier Rousseau Social perceptions of ecosystem services delivered by coastal wetlands: their value and the threats they face in northwestern Mexico 2022-12-14T14:07:08+00:00 Aimée Cervantes Escobar Arturo Ruiz-Luna César Alejandro Berlanga Robles <p>Wetlands are recognized for their socio-environmental value and capacity to provide ecosystem services (ES) that are currently threatened by diverse drivers, including those derived from climate change. These changes in the ES delivery may not be recognized by their users, and to determine the extent to which communities are aware of the presence and importance of coastal wetlands, participatory workshops were held in four coastal communities in northwestern Mexico following the Metaplan methodology. The effects produced by extreme rainfall events (as a manifestation of climate change) on wetlands and their ES, were also analyzed. Four coastal wetlands (estuaries, saltmarshes, mangroves, and lagoons) were among the most important ecosystems, while poor fishing practices, mangrove deforestation, and pollution, were identified as their main threats. Climate change, land use changes and water mismanagement, also threat wetlands. There were a few differences among communities, mostly related to the number of ES and their categories; nonetheless, saltmarshes and mangroves were priority wetlands in the communities included in this study, recognizing the ES they provide. Most of the participants in all communities coincided on the main threats and pressures facing wetlands and their ES, particularly those related to climate change, which also affect their livelihoods. But, despite the awareness, regional coastal wetlands continue to decline, considering that participatory processes are necessary for establishing the importance of wetlands while incorporating traditional knowledge, alternative actions, and novel solutions into management actions that may be scaled from the community level into regional development strategies.</p> 2023-02-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Aimée Cervantes Escobar, Arturo Ruiz-Luna, César Alejandro Berlanga Robles Applying the World-System theory in the conservation sciences to understand COVID-19 pandemic as a socio-environmental synergy 2022-08-26T00:33:57+00:00 María Hirschfeld Luiz Roberto R Faria Gabriel de Siqueira Gil Carlos Roberto Fonseca <p><span class="fontstyle0">The pandemic of COVID-19 caused a global epidemiological, economic and social crisis. In the conservation sciences, several studies have focused efforts on understanding the effects of declining human activities on biodiversity, understanding the pandemic as an anthropogenic "pause"of global scale. But the impact of the pandemic was not the same for everyone. Different impacts are consequences of political and ethical questions about who and what can pause or be paused, according to what authority and under what conditions. Therefore, the historical asymmetrical relations of power in the World System are crucial to understanding environmental impacts and thinking about solutions in the post-pandemic world. This article discusses why historical local-global inequalities should be an indispensable reference variable for examining the different experiences caused by the pandemic in biodiversity, aiming at advancing the discussion about the society-nature relationship that the pandemic has spurred. To do so, we use the World-System Theory, initially proposed by Wallerstein, whose analytical categories allow us to situate nature conservation within broader economic, historical, and contemporary contexts. We argue for the understanding of biodiversity conservation in the context of the historical-sociological and global-local relations of the World-System. Finally, we discuss that the COVID-19 pandemic should be understood as an emergent phenomenon of the society-nature dynamic of the world-system.</span></p> 2023-03-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 María Hirschfeld, Luiz Roberto R Faria, Gabriel de Siqueira Gil, Carlos Roberto Fonseca Human consumption of meat from roadkilled animals in the southwestern Amazon 2023-02-01T11:14:51+00:00 Marcela Alvares Oliveira Raul Afonso Pommer-Barbosa Rômulo Romeu Nobrega Alves Hani Rocha El Bizri Mariluce Rezende Messias Carolina Rodrigues da Costa Doria <p>The harvest of meat from wild animals is essential for the nutrition of many human populations in the Neotropics. Specific techniques are used to access wild meat, but collecting meat from road killed animals, or purposely run over animals to kill and consume the meat have not been documented so far. In this study we interviewed four residents of the state of Rondônia who claimed to consume roadkilled animals. Respondents cited only medium and large mammals (10 species in total) as the group from which wild meat is harvested, with one respondent claiming to intentionally run over the animals. The interviewees analyse the smell/putrefaction, swelling and exposure of viscera as criteria for not collecting the meat. The meat from roadkilled animals may pose a risk to the health of humans who consume it due to the foodborne diseases it may spread after the decomposition process. In addition, the practice of running over animals for consumption of their meat can cause potential impacts to the fauna and humans since it can reduce animal numbers and also cause serious accidents. Further investigations are needed to clarify whether this is widespread phenomenon occurring in other places of the Amazon and of the Neotropics.</p> 2023-03-03T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Marcela Alvares Oliveira, Raul Afonso Pommer-Barbosa, Rômulo Romeu Nobrega Alves, Hani Rocha El Bizri, Mariluce Rezende Messias, Carolina Rodrigues da Costa Doria Stage-based model of population dynamics and harvest of Broad-snouted caiman (<i>Caiman latirostris<i>) under different management scenarios 2022-10-13T16:47:50+00:00 Evangelina V. Viotto Joaquín L. Navarro Melina S. Simoncini Carlos Piña <p>We created a matrix model structured by stages (divided into 5 stages) to evaluate the population dynamics of <em>Caiman latirostris</em> and the population behavior at different management intensities through ranching and hunting of adult individuals. We generated 5000 matrices by sampling the mean and variance values of survivals (pi) and hatching for each stage. For each matrix, we obtained the growth rate λ and performed elasticity analyses. Modifying the mean matrix obtained from the previous analysis, we evaluated different scenarios of ranching, reintroduction, and hunting of adult females of the last two stages (E) raised here (class III animals, &gt; 60 cm snout-vent length, divided into two: E4 and E5). We obtained a mean λ of 1.035 (range 0.88 − 1.12), and 11.9% of the simulations had λ &lt; 1. The vital rate with the highest elasticity and variance was that of the adult females of the last stage. Natural populations can tolerate a maximum of 5% adult female hunting, and ranching can extract 55% of nests from the wild without reintroduction or 80% of nest harvest, returning to the wild at least 3% of hatched animals in the ranching programs. Our model showed that hunting and ranching with reintroduction are feasible strategies to be applied without threatening natural populations. Increasing reintroduction makes it possible to extract more adult individuals and maintain the species’ populations at sustainable levels.</p> 2023-01-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Evangelina V. Viotto, Joaquín L. Navarro, Melina S. Simoncini, Carlos Piña Conhecimento Pesqueiro e o Defeso: Preenchendo uma Lacuna Necessária 2022-11-16T17:39:46+00:00 Vitor Renck David Ludwig Irael de Jesus Santos Valdemir Celestino dos Santos Francisco de Assis da Conceição Nelson Amado de Araújo Clecio Cardoso dos Santos Valdomiro José de Oliveira Paride Bollettin José Amorim Reis-Filho Luana Poliseli Charbel El-Hani <p>No Brasil, o estabelecimento da política de defeso não tem levado em conta os conhecimentos de pescadores artesanais, que são, comumente, marginalizados e não reconhecidos perante às políticas públicas que os atingem. Em nossos estudos, encontramos uma marcada incompatibilidade entre o conhecimento de pescadores artesanais do estuário do rio Itapicuru, litoral norte da Bahia, sobre o período reprodutivo de algumas espécies marinhas utilizadas como recursos pesqueiros e os períodos de defeso estabelecidos em lei. Os conhecimentos dos pescadores sugerem que duas espécies de robalo bem como quatro espécies de camarão estão sendo protegidas em períodos do ano dissonantes da época reprodutiva percebida pelos pescadores. Propomos, assim, uma mudança nos procedimentos de tomada de decisão subjacentes às legislações de defeso, assim como a revisão da legislação específica para robalos e camarões, levando-se em conta o conhecimento de especialistas tradicionais. Especialmente na formulação de novas políticas de defeso, consideramos fundamental a participação destes últimos. Para alcançar uma compreensão mais robusta e precisa da situação, propomos colocar em diálogo o conhecimento científico acadêmico e os conhecimentos de pescadores artesanais, em uma abordagem de pesquisa participativa. Processos participativos, como os que propomos aqui, e, eventualmente, de coprodução do conhecimento não só permitem melhorar as práticas de gestão e conservação ambiental e formulação de políticas públicas, mas também podem desempenhar um papel de empoderamento para comunidades pesqueiras, assim como para outros povos do campo e povos indígenas.</p> 2023-02-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Vitor Renck, David Ludwig, Irael de Jesus Santos, Valdemir Celestino dos Santos, Francisco de Assis da Conceição, Nelson Amado de Araújo, Clecio Cardoso dos Santos, Valdomiro José de Oliveira, Paride Bollettin, José Amorim Reis-Filho, Luana Poliseli, Charbel El-Hani