Ethnobiology and Conservation en-US <p>This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the <a href="" target="_blank" rel="license noopener">Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY).</a> The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.</p> (Rômulo Romeu da Nóbrega Alves) (Itamar Barbosa de Lima) Fri, 07 Jan 2022 18:12:39 +0000 OJS 60 Wild animals housed at the IBAMA triage center in Southern Brazil, 2005–2021: a glimpse into the endless conflicts between man and other animals. <p>Spurred on by the illegal billion-dollar revenue, the capture and trade of wild fauna remain the leading illegal activities in Brazil, and elsewhere. We present and discuss insights into the wild animals housed at the Wild Animal Triage Center in Southern Brazil. Recorded data from 2005 to 2021 were used. A total of 36,950 animals were sheltered in that period, and most of them were common passerines (24.182) such as the Saffron Finch, and Red-crested Cardinal, among many others confiscated after inspections or reports. Passerines have long been the top trafficked species in Brazil and abroad, where birdkeeping has strong cultural and economic values. The totals per class were 29,784 birds, 2,584 insects, 2,237 reptiles, and 2,170 mammals. Since they were mostly relinquished by the population rather than seized, most mammals, insects, and reptiles were probably unwanted guests in human spaces, tendency that illustrates the human difficulty in coexisting with wildlife. A total of 3,085 animals exhibited some threat or risk of extinction, which, as a general rule, grants them conservation priority. However, regardless of class, most animals (31,142) in this study were rated as least concern on the red lists, a trend in wildlife trafficking linked to the category criteria of being widely distributed species with abundant populations, and often, in close contact with human neighbors. Maintaining an abundance of common and nonthreatened species can be justified by the greater extent of their ecosystem services, from a local to global scale. Our results further highlight the urgent need to change our ways of interacting with wildlife.</p> Cláudio Estêvão Farias Cruz, Camila Eloine Silva Sores, Gustavo Bonamigo Hirt, Paulo Guilherme Carniel Wagner, Inês Andretta, Walter Nisa-Castro Neto Copyright (c) 2022 Cláudio Estêvão Farias Cruz, Camila Eloine Silva Sores, Gustavo Bonamigo Hirt, Paulo Guilherme Carniel Wagner, Inês Andretta, Walter Nisa-Castro Neto Tue, 27 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Climate change will likely threaten areas of suitable habitats for the most relevant medicinal plants native to the Caatinga dry forest <p>Disruption of ecosystem services associated with climate change may affect human well-being in different ways. Medicinal plants provide extremely relevant ecosystem services. Here, we tested the hypothesis that highly suitable habitats (i.e. suitability ≥ 0.8) for medicinal plants in Caatinga dry forest may be potentially contracted under scenarios of climate change, which are represented by different levels of increases in greenhouse gas emissions. We performed species distribution modelling to simulate the effects of climate change on the range of suitable habitats for medicinal plants native to the Caatinga dry forest. We selected the 10 most important plant species based on their high local importance as medicinal resources. We documented that climate change may distinctly affect areas of suitable habitats for medicinal plants in the Caatinga dry forest. Independent of the future climatic scenario projected to 2070, 60% of the studied species will likely experience reductions in their areas of highly suitable habitats, 30% will likely experience increases and 10% may not be affected. Specifically, suitable habitats will likely be reduced for<em> Myracrodruon urundeuva, Erythrina velutina</em>, <em>Operculina hamiltonii</em>, <em>Cereus jamacaru, Bauhinia cheilantha</em>, and <em>Anadenanthera colubrina</em>; increased for <em>Amburana cearensis</em>, <em>Neocalyptrocalyx longifolium </em>and<em> Operculina macrocarpa</em>; and may not be affected exclusively for <em>Maytenus rigida </em>in future scenarios of climate change. We alert that potential future contractions of highly suitable habitats for the most important medicinal plants may compromise ecosystem functions and the provisioning of relevant natural medicines, mainly to low-income communities, which predominate abundant in the Caatinga dry forest.</p> Jéssica Luiza S. Silva, Oswaldo Cruz-Neto, Marcelo Tabarelli, Ulysses Paulino Albuquerque, Ariadna Valentina Lopes Copyright (c) 2022 Ethnobiology and Conservation Fri, 22 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Is timber management a realistic conservation alternative for indigenous Amazonian communities? <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Indigenous people, who are often economically, socially, and culturally dependent on forests, represent important stakeholders in forest management. Due to high costs, indigenous communities partner with external institutions to harvest timber, often resulting in forest degradation within their territories, internal and external conflicts, and disinterest in starting new timber management projects. Using a standardized methodology to investigate the outcomes of previous community forestry projects presents an opportunity to better understand and potentially resolve further issues. To investigate this issue, we conducted research in the Sinchi Roca I native community in Peru. Our objectives were: (1) to describe the process of timber harvest; (2) to analyze gender differences in local perception of timber management; and (3) to evaluate the outcomes of the timber activity, applying socioeconomic criteria and indicators. Data collection included in-depth interviews, focus group discussions, and intra-household surveys. We found that locals partnered with a company for timber harvesting, which led to a sanction from the Peruvian government. Timber harvesting was negatively perceived in the community, with 83.75% of survey respondents dissatisfied with the activity and 88.75% reporting internal and external conflicts due to the presence of the company. Moreover, women did not have a major role in timber harvesting, nor did they actively participate in planning meetings. Results suggest that improving future timber management projects in indigenous communities requires that projects be adapted to local realities and encourage local participation, including training for locals in governance, administration of documents, and negotiations with external stakeholders.</span></p> Lucia Alejandra Fitts, Zoila Aurora Cruz-Burga, Hannah Legatzke, María de los Ángeles La Torre-Cuadros Copyright (c) 2022 Ethnobiology and Conservation Fri, 07 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Reducing Wild Meat Sales and Promoting Local Food Security: Lessons Learnt from a Behavior Change Campaign in Yangambi, Democratic Republic of Congo <p>Marketing strategies to promote behavioral change are increasingly used to reduce the unsustainable use of wild meat. One of the mayor keys for success of behavior change campaigns lies in the choice of the channel for communication and the messaging. In this research, we present a behavioral change campaign implemented in Yangambi, Democratic Republic of Congo framed around an integrated conservation and development objective: improve food security in rural communities, reduce the unsustainable use of wildlife for food and promote locally grown pork and chicken. The campaign was co-developed based on the research team’s knowledge of the hunting system in the study area and the participation of key local stakeholders (village leaders, hunters and their families). It used participatory community theater, various printed materials, radio and face to face interactions. We evaluated the efficiency and clarity of messaging for channels used through semi-structured interviews with hunters, households and wildlife traders. We found that participatory community theater resulted in increased clarity and understanding among hunters and households. Moreover, community theater promoted word-of-mouth communication that reached an audience well beyond the location where the theater was held. Messages that were framed positively and used amusing channels of communication triggered positive receptiveness by our audience. Using local languages, avoiding written materials for illiterate audiences, and using repetitive means of communication may be among the strategies that could help increase the clarity of communication messages, particularly for sensitive topics such as this one. Our work calls for more lessons learnt from the ground about the most appropriate communication channels and messages, keeping in mind the social and cultural background of the audience, and ensuring that messages trigger emotions that lead to the desired changes.</p> Nathalie van Vliet, Ahtziri Gonzalez, Jonas Nyumu, Jonas Muhindo, Evi Paemelaere, Paolo Cerutti, Robert Nasi Copyright (c) 2022 Ethnobiology and Conservation Mon, 11 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 A tale that never loses in the telling: Considerations for the shifting ethnobaseline based on artisanal fisher records from the southwestern Atlantic <p>An ethnoichthyological survey was conducted with fishers from traditional communities distributed between the Região dos Lagos and the northern Fluminense region, in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The study was developed based on semi-structured interviews, with fishers with at least 30 years of experience. Fishers were asked about changes noted for the biological communities with which they interact with, such as reports concerning abundance changes, the disappearance of certain species or the insertion of new ones, as well as weight and size changes. The reported ethno-names were confirmed at the specific level whenever possible through photographs and complementary descriptions. Eighty-five fishers aged between 39 to 83 years old were interviewed. Fishing activity times ranged from 30 to 68 years, averaging 40.6 years. Fishers reported differing estimates from what was expected according to the known length-weight relationship for the reported species. In general, length estimates were closer to the expected for medium-sized fish from 0.3 m to 1 m. Sixty-nine ethno-names and their variations were identified, associated with 58 fish categories. Of this total, denominations were associated to 47 local fauna species or genera, while one ethno-name was not linked to any taxonomic identification. This study is the result of research financed by the Brazilian Fund for Biodiversity and the Pescarte Environmental Education Project, a mitigation measure required by the Federal Environmental Licensing, conducted by IBAMA.</p> Sérgio Ricardo Santos, Márcio Luís Chagas Macedo, Thaís Rodrigues Maciel, Gabriel Barros Gonçalves Souza, Laís da Silva Almeida, Otto Bismarck Fazzano Gadig, Marcelo Vianna Copyright (c) 2022 Ethnobiology and Conservation Wed, 26 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Is it the plants we know that we use? Unraveling the determining factors of ethnobotanical knowledge in a rural community in Central Mexico <p>The knowledge and use of plant resources are constantly evolving. In this work, the socio-cultural and economic factors that influence the ethnobotanical knowledge of a mestizo community in Mexico were analyzed, and the correspondence of two cultural indices (use value vs. practical value) was determined to identify the magnitude of the significance and utility of each of the ethnofloristic resources. The study was carried out through semi-structured interviews with 44 local informants. Free lists were applied, and the indexes of use value and practical value were used to document the most culturally important plants.</p> <p>With an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), the differences in botanical knowledge between genera and the effect of socioeconomic covariates on it were evaluated. 223 species were recorded in 54 botanical families and 86 genera, of which 48% were herbs and just over 60% of the total were recorded in homegardens. The Asteraceae family had the highest number of useful species followed by Fabaceae and Rosaceae. Of a total of 10 categories of use, medicinal, food and ornamental plants were the most representative. A weak correspondence was found between the cultural indices at the species level, but there was consistence at the level of use categories. The ANCOVA showed that there is no statistically significant difference between the genders and none of the covariates have a significant influence (p&gt;0.05) on ethnobotanical knowledge. However, there was a consensus between men and women on the importance they give to medicinal and food plants.</p> Leonardo Beltrán, Jesús Gutierrez, Gabriel Flores, Alfredo Saynes, Belinda Maldonado, José Blancas, Amanda Ortiz Copyright (c) 2022 Leonardo Beltrán, Jesús Gutierrez, Gabriel Flores, Alfredo Saynes, Belinda Maldonado, José Blancas, Amanda Ortiz Mon, 15 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The other sheep, resistant but forgotten: Archetypal characterization of Linca sheep farmers in Argentine Patagonia <p>Identifying and understanding how resilience is generated in a local socioecological system is essential for the design of future conservation strategies. The Linca sheep represents one of the most important – but least known – biocultural legacies of the Mapuche people in Patagonia. These sheep, which arrived in the region along with the conquistadors more than three centuries ago, have been almost completely displaced by the Merino sheep breed. In this work we analyse the principal components that characterise the relictual producers of Linca sheep. These components are the key for the conservation of this traditional practice and takes a substantial part of local zoological knowledge (LZK). Interviews with artisans (n = 51) who know, require or use Linca wool, either know the breeders, enabled us to contact and interview 13 families who preserve these sheep. Based on an interpretative study we identified 3 biocultural components and 11 analytical variables. Through this analysis of the archetypes, within this universe of producers, we recognized three profiles: Veteran, Tenacious, and Emotionally Attached. The families who have preserved this ancient practice were assigned to one of the three groups based on the shortest Euclidean distance and information obtained from the interviews. Among the main characteristics of these relictual producers the important role played by women stands out, as they preserve and transmit knowledge of the textile language and maintain the diversity of the Linca sheep, transforming their family units into guardians of the biocultural inheritance of this local breed.</p> Carlos Aden Reising, María Rosa Lanari, Ana H. Ladio Copyright (c) 2022 Carlos Aden Reising, María Rosa Lanari, Ana H. Ladio Thu, 27 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Knowledge of marine mammal professionals on ecosystem services associated with the marine manatee (Trichechus manatus) in Brazil <p>Ecosystem services are the benefits we derive from the ecosystems we occupy. These services are related to biodiversity and this interaction ensures the functioning of the processes necessary for their own maintenance. The aim of this study was to identify the perception of ecosystem services associated with West Indian manatee (<em>Trichechus manatus</em>) in their sites of occurrence in Brazil. Data collection was carried out using forms completed autonomously by professionals who participated in the elaboration of the National Action Plan for the Conservation of Sirenia in Brazil. Most respondents belong to private institutions and have more than ten years’ experience in these field. We found a positive and significant correlation between pressures and threats in manatees, that currently affect in ecosystem services and are expected to continue in the future. No differences were observed in perception regarding the presence of categories of ecosystem services. Thus, it is considered that researchers believe that all categories were relevant in their geographic area of activity. Finally, we describe particularly some ecosystem services provided by manatee with emphasis in the cultural. The traditional fishing communities were considered the public that most benefited from all services.</p> Flavia Bonfietti Izidoro, Renato de Mei Romero, Alexandre Schiavetti Copyright (c) 2022 Ethnobiology and Conservation Mon, 01 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Traditional medicine practices of Guji Semi-Pastoralist People to treat livestock ailments in Suro Barguda District, West Guji Zone, Ethiopia <p>The objectives of this research were to collect, identify, document, and analyze ethnoveterinary medicinal plants and their associated indigenous knowledge including their preparation and application by traditional healers, and the status of their conservation by Guji Semi-Pastoralist People of Suro Barguda District, West Guji Zone, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia. <em>&nbsp;</em>Forty-six ethnoveterinary medicinal plant species representing 43 genera and 29 families were identified in the district (Additional file 1). About 26.1% of the families were represented by more than one species. The highest number of species was recorded for Asteraceae (5 species), followed by Euphorbiaceae (4 species) and most ethnoveterinary medicines were prepared from herbs and shrubs than other growth forms. Chopping the remedial parts and homogenizing them with cold water was found to be the major mode of remedy preparation. All documented ethnoveterinary plant species were harvested from the wild and observed as exposed to depletion. About 4.4% of the ethnoveterinary medicinal plants of Suro Barguda District were endemic to Ethiopia. This study indicated that the study area encompasses different species of ethnoveterinary medicinal plants which should be given conservation priority and the local community depends largely on these plants for the treatment of different livestock ailments although the healers had a very high intention to keep their traditional knowledge secrete. The indigenous knowledge of pastoralists about plants and breeding different species of livestock, as well as their environmental management systems (traditional forest, soil, and water conservation systems), should be incorporated in the planning and implementation of developmental interventions.</p> Mersha Ashagre Eshete, Ermias Lulekal Molla Copyright (c) 2022 Mersha Ashagre Eshete, Ermias Lulekal Molla Mon, 29 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Chasing for water monitors using dogs in West Java, Indonesia: a recreational hunting or pest control? <p><span class="fontstyle0">Wildlife hunting for subsistence is mostly reported in rural areas and performed by traditional people. Whereas it is also practiced in urban areas and targeted for abundant urban species such as the. water monitor (</span><span class="fontstyle2">Varanus salvator</span><span class="fontstyle0">). Urban hunting may be linked to pest control or pastime activity, which could be beneficial for wildlife management. Our purpose of study was to investigate hunting practice of water monitor in Bogor area, West Java, Indonesia. Data was collected between January and June 2020 to find characteristics and motivation of hunters, their hunting methods, and harvests. We were able to conduct face-to-face interviews with 42 local urban people, whom we followed in four hunting<br />groups during their search for wildlife. Generally, hunters were students, workers, or laborers, who hunt only during the weekends. To capture water monitors, some hunters used dogs and air rifles, while some others used nothing but bare hands. During our observation, 157 individual water monitors were targeted, but only 150 were caught. There were several motivations for hunters to target water monitors apart from being a hobby, i.e., for food and to eliminate pest. Due to its motivation and strategy, we consider the hunt for water monitor in Bogor area mainly for recreational purposes.</span></p> Andhika Prima Yudha; Mirza Dikari Kusrini, Evy Arida Copyright (c) 2022 Ethnobiology and Conservation Wed, 09 Feb 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Participation in subsistence activities and maintenance of traditional skills among indigenous youth in the South Rupununi, Guyana <p>Over the past few decades, issues including globalization and the transition to the cash economy have increasingly hindered the transmission of Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) in Indigenous communities throughout the world. The imparting of TEK across generations of Indigenous Peoples is essential in sustaining cultural practices and to maintaining their subsistence lifestyles. In this study, we used semi-structure interviews to assess the level of participation in subsistence activities and acquisition of subsistence skills among Indigenous children in Guyana.&nbsp; We also assessed whether the level of participation or acquisition of skills was explained by location and social characteristics such as age, gender, occupation of mother/father. We found that Indigenous children in the South Rupununi are highly involved in subsistence activities and the majority conserves subsistence related skills. &nbsp;Traditional gears, such as the bow and arrow are still dominant among Indigenous children in South Rupununi, particularly for hunting purposes, but also for fishing. &nbsp;Results also suggest that children’s participation (through work or play) in subsistence activities are key to the acquisition of subsistence knowledge and skills. Among indigenous children in South Rupununi, participation to subsistence activities varies according to gender and is linked to the main occupation of the parents. While participation in subsistence activities is primarily motivated by the need to search for food, those activities are also explicitly described as providing opportunities for skill development and as sources of fun or amusement. The study concludes by advocating the need to revive connections to subsistence ways of life and the integration of more situated learning experiences within the regular school curriculum for indigenous youth.</p> Nathalie van Vliet, Neal Millar, Alyssa Melville, Oswin David, Leroy Ignacio Copyright (c) 2022 Nathalie van Vliet, Neal Millar, Alyssa Melville, Oswin David, Leroy Ignacio Thu, 11 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Traditional Aucan knowledge on fish and plants eaten by fish along the Tapanahoni River, Suriname <p>Suriname’s freshwater systems are home to a large diversity of (endemic) fish species, and communities of Suriname’s interior strongly depend on this diversity for their nutrient intake. However, studies on traditional knowledge of the country’s freshwater fish and fish-plant interactions are scarce. Here, we present our findings of a pilot study in the Aucan Maroon community of Diitabiki (Tapanahoni river). We report the species of freshwater fish caught for food, their corresponding Aucan names and plants eaten by fish and/or used for fishing by the local population. We held semi-structured interviews and performed participant observation with fishers and forest guides in August and September 2021. We recorded 14 fish species, of which 12 were identified to species level, and recorded 16 Aucan fish names, of which nine were previously undocumented. Furthermore, we reported 11 plant species that were used for fishing and one fish poison (Tephrosia sinapou (Buc’hoz) A.Chev.). Suriname’s riverine ecosystems are threatened by gold mining activities that endanger the health of local communities, as well as the fish populations and riverine forests on which both people and fish depend. Local knowledge on fish, their feeding behavior and the flooded forests is essential for the conservation of this important Amazonian ecosystem, for the development of sustainable management plans and health education programs on mercury levels in consumption fish.</p> Isabela Pombo Geertsma, Daan van der Hoeven, Tinde van Andel Copyright (c) 2022 Isabela Pombo Geertsma, Daan van der Hoeven, Tinde van Andel Mon, 15 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Potential conflict as an opportunity for coexistence: cosmovision and attitudes of Arhuaco people towards jaguars <p>Human responses to alterations caused by wildlife in human livelihoods depend on psychological and cultural factors, in addition to tangible factors. The ideas of transforming the discourse of conflict into a vision of coexistence, as well as of promoting a dialogue between science and ancestral knowledge, have been increasingly valued in biodiversity conservation. In ten communities of the Arhuaco people (Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia), we qualitatively explored the role of the jaguar (<em>Panthera onca</em>) and its main prey (deer, peccary and paca) in the Arhuaco cosmovision, as well as how these people interpret and manage the alterations caused by these species on their livelihood from a cultural perspective. We evaluated quantitatively their cognitive, affective, and behavioral attitudes towards coexistence with these species. Our findings show that attitudes towards coexistence with the jaguar and its main prey were significantly more positive among those who have been affected by wildlife (i.e., livestock depredation and crop consumption) or who, according to their occupation (ranchers-farmers), have a higher risk of being affected. These attitudes could be better understood in light of the principles of the Arhuaco cosmovision, that have a profoundly ecological ethic, in which the jaguar plays a primordial role in the spiritual, cosmogonic, and natural order. Guaranteeing the protection of Arhuaco culture and territory could be very valuable for the conservation of the jaguar and biodiversity in the ecoregion of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta.</p> Marianna Pinto-Marroquin, Carlos Castaño-Uribe, Jairo Pérez-Torres, John F. Aristizabal, Dídac Santos-Fita, Aquilino Ramos Chaparro, Juan Carlos Serio-Silva Copyright (c) 2022 Marianna Pinto-Marroquin, Carlos Castaño-Uribe, Jairo Pérez-Torres, John F. Aristizabal, Dídac Santos-Fita, Aquilino Ramos Chaparro, Juan Carlos Serio-Silva Wed, 16 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000 From the forest to the coast: the wild meat trade chain on the Coast of Guyana <p>In the Caribbean region, very little is known about wild meat use and trade. To contribute to this knowledge gap, we studied the wild meat trade chain on the coastal area of Guyana, which geographically and culturally connects the Caribbean and the Amazon Region. In Guyana, the wildmeat sector is legal and in the process of being regulated. Our study shows that the market chain on the coast of Guyana is a short and direct market chain where the harvester most often sells directly to the consumer or through one level of intermediary (market vendors, home-based traders, roadside traders, restaurants, food stalls or rum shops). In coastal Guyana, wild meat can be considered a luxury, rather than a necessity: the price is higher compared to other alternative sources of meat and demand rises for special events. The topmost sold species are Cuniculus paca, Mazama americana, Tapirus terrestris, Dicotyles tajacu, Tayassu pecari, and Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris. The volumes traded to the coast of Guyana are equivalent to 361 tons of wild meat sold per year. Considering the population size on the coast of Guyana, this amount is equivalent to 1,4 g/capita/day and 4% of the protein intake from animal origin. These values are below those observed in urban towns from Central Amazonia in Brazil where wild meat consumption per capita equals to 18 g/capita/day. From a one health perspective, further attention is required with regards to food safety aspects along this legal trade chain.</p> Nathalie van Vliet, Anupana Puran, Oswin David, Robert Nasi Copyright (c) 2022 Ethnobiology and Conservation Sat, 06 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Evolutionary ethnobiology <p>Ethnobiology is a discipline that deals with understanding the relationship between human beings and biota. The strong interdisciplinary component of ethnobiology allows it to interact with different fields of knowledge. The evolutionary approach in ethnobiology is not completely absent, however it lacks systematization, which has been recently proposed. From this proposal, the evolutionary ethnobiology emerged. This approach studies the relations between human groups and biota from theoretical scenarios of ecology and evolution. Here we present the evolutionary ethnobiology, its key concepts, the theoretical scenarios with which it dialogues.</p> Washington Soares Ferreira Júnior, Patricia Muniz Medeiros, Ulysses Paulino Albuquerque Copyright (c) 2022 Ethnobiology and Conservation Wed, 27 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Patterns of wildlife hunting and trade by local communities in eastern Amazonian floodplains <p>Local people living in the Amazon rainforest rely heavily on wild meat as a source of protein and income. While the patterns and drivers of wildlife hunting and trade by local communities are well-known for upland forests, such aspects have been poorly explored in Amazonian floodplains. This study aims to describe wild meat hunting and trade patterns and assess the hunting dynamics of local communities in Amazonian floodplain areas. For this purpose, we interviewed 121 hunters in 36 communities living in white-water flooded forests in the lower Amazon River, Brazil. Thirty taxa were cited as hunted by interviewees, who used a repertoire of 13 hunting techniques. Aquatic and semi-aquatic taxa were the most prevalent, especially <em>Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris</em>, <em>Cairina moschata</em>, and <em>Podocnemis unifilis</em>. Eight taxa were cited as traded; wild meat was sold at 2.57 ± 2.22 USD/kg, while eggs of birds and turtles were sold at 0.37 ± 0.27 USD/unit. We found an inverted-U relationship between the body mass and the number of citations per taxa, with species weighing between 10-40 kg presenting the highest number of citations. The hunting patterns found here are different from those frequently found in the literature for upland environments. Understanding these hunting and trade patterns will help develop tailored wildlife conservation and management strategies for Amazonian floodplains.</p> André Bastos da Silva, Paula E. R. Pereyra, Hani R. El Bizri, Wedson M. S. Souto, Rafael Sá Leitão Barboza Copyright (c) 2022 Ethnobiology and Conservation Wed, 13 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Poaching and illegal wildlife trade in western Argentina <p>Human-wildlife interactions, poaching and illegal wildlife trade in particular, are among the major threats to biodiversity around the world, causing species and population extinctions, zoonotic diseases dissemination, and exotic species invasions, among others. Here we assessed the patterns of poaching and illegal wildlife trade in western Argentina. We reviewed official infringement and verification records for 5 years (2015 to 2019) in San Juan province. We assessed the taxa involved and their conservation status, including wildlife uses and poaching elements. We found 58 taxa involved in 697 records. Most of them were birds (72%), followed by mammals (26%) and reptiles (2%). However, mammals are proportionally the most poached taxon in relation to their richness in the region. We detected that the bird <em>Saltator aurantiirostris</em> was the most prevalent species, appearing in 63% of all records, while <em>Diuca diuca</em>, the second most seized species, appeared in 19% of the infringement proceedings. This study shows that illegal hunting and trafficking are frequent activities affecting many species in the province, and that mammals and birds are the most affected taxa. Mammals were mostly involved in poaching events for their meat and fur, for which individuals were killed. On the other hand, birds were mainly live-captured to be sold as pets. Actions are necessary to protect fauna and raise people’s awareness in order to effectively control these illegal activities and support ecosystem health and integrity. To tackle these problems, it is fundamental to understand the impacts of poaching and trade, improve state control to prevent these activities, and employ non-formal education actions to change people’s behavior towards conservation.</p> Sofía Becerra, José Marinero, Carlos E. Borghi Copyright (c) 2022 Ethnobiology and Conservation Fri, 28 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Freelisting as a suitable method to estimate the composition and harvest rates of hunted species in tropical forests <p>The aim of this study was to test the use of measures obtained from freelisting as possible surrogates of the harvest rate of game species. For this purpose, we interviewed 100 rural and urban hunters in southwestern Amazonia to obtain the frequency of citations of each hunted species through freelisting and gather information on the number of individuals hunted per species in the last five hunting events through hunting recalls. We assessed the relationship between the percentage of records per species by each method through a generalized linear model, and then compared the predicted values obtained from this model with the values observed in our dataset using Pearson’s correlation. During freelisting, forty-three taxa were listed in 608 citations as hunted by the informants. Freelisting provided data on around twice the number of species obtained from recalls. During the last five hunting trips, urban hunters reported the hunting of 164 individuals of 18 species, representing 54.5% of the freelisted species. Rural hunters caught 146 individuals of 21 species, 60.0% of the freelisted species. We found a strong logistic relationship between the harvest rates, i.e., percentage of individuals hunted per species from recalls, and the freelisting percentage citations of game species, with the estimated and observed values of harvest rates highly matching (Pearson's R = 0.98, p &lt; 0.0001). The freelisting method allowed a good estimate of the composition and the harvest rates of hunted species. The formula produced in this study can be used as a reference for further studies, enabling researchers to use freelisting effectively to assess the composition of hunted species and to address the difficulty of obtaining reliable data on species harvest rates in tropical forests, especially in short-term studies and contexts in which hunters distrust research.</p> Marcela Alvares Oliveira, Hani R. El Bizri, Thais Q. Morcatty, Mariluce Rezende Messias, Carolina Rodrigues da Costa Doria Copyright (c) 2022 Ethnobiology and Conservation Tue, 22 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Human perception towards the association between the domestic rock pigeon and the insect vector of Chagas disease in an urban area of Argentina <p>This article focuses on identifying risk factors through the knowledge, perceptions, and prevention practices of the population regarding the rock pigeon and the vector of Chagas disease (vinchucas) in an urban area of Argentina. The study used interviews of focal groups, family nuclei with nearby nesting sites and without nearby nesting sites. Among the results, some risk factors that contribute to the infestation of vinchucas in houses were identified, such as presence of nesting sites of the rock pigeon, and frequency of cleaning the nests and of fumigation. We show that people that kept their houses clean of nests and routinely disinfected their homes had considerably lower probability of finding vinchucas within their houses. We also identify a general lack of knowledge about risk factors of Chagas disease related to the presence of nesting sites in houses, the form of dispersion of the vector and how to act upon encountering a vinchuca. However, respondents who presented nests in their houses associated the encounter of vinchucas with the presence of nesting sites. The respondents showed high levels of support for programs to control the population of the rock pigeon. It is important that the population at risk of contracting Chagas disease can combat this disease through their daily actions. Promoting better knowledge of risk factors would be an important advancement for community compliance and participation in the fight against Chagas disease.</p> Viviana Noemí Fernández-Maldonado, Carlos E. Borghi Copyright (c) 2022 Ethnobiology and Conservation Mon, 17 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Chemical characterization and potential use of reptile fat from sustainable programs <p>Reptile meats and fats are used for their medicinal properties and nutritional values ​​perceived through the culture of native peoples, though often with no scientific basis. Providing scientific information about potential medicinal and nutritional use of reptile fats would be a strategy for the full use of wild animals, supporting the sustainable use and conservation of biodiversity. The objective of this study was to characterize and chemically compare the fat and oil of individuals of Argentine Black and white tegu (<em>Salvator merianae</em>) and Broad-snouted caiman (<em>Caiman latirostris</em>) from sustainable use and conservation programs. In addition, we evaluated the microbiological characteristics and the antimicrobial activity of the oils obtained by different methods. We used two methodologies to obtain oils, one by fusion extraction and the other by drying-decantation (traditional hunter's method). We obtained the chemical and microbiological characterization of fat and oil of <em> latirostris </em>and <em>S. merianae</em>. All the oil samples presented less than 10 CFU/ml of all the microorganisms tested. <em>C. latirostris</em> and <em>S. merianae</em> oil showed nutritional quality parameters that indicate its potential use. Furthermore, <em>S. merianae</em> oil showed antimicrobial activity against <em>Staphylococcus aureus </em>and <em>Candidas tropicalis.</em> No inhibition occurs for the rest of the microorganisms analyzed. <em>C. latirostris</em> oil did not show antimicrobial activity, although the lipid profile does indicate some anti-inflammatory potential. This study demonstrates the potential application of the tested oils and confirms the pharmacological basis for the traditional therapeutic use of <em>S. merianae</em> oil.</p> Pamela M. L. Leiva, Florencia E. Valli, Carlos I. Piña, Marcela A. González, Melina S. Simoncini Copyright (c) 2022 Ethnobiology and Conservation Tue, 22 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Winter survivorship of hatchling broad-snouted caimans (Caiman latirostris) in Argentina <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>The first life stage of crocodilians is considered the most critical in terms of survival, particularly in regions that have well-defined cold seasons. To estimate this parameter for hatchling broad-snouted caimans, Class I (CI = snout-vent length &lt; 25 cm), we released 36 caimans (18 in 2018, and 18 in 2019) born in captivity that were equipped with VHF radio-transmitters, and we monitored them during each first winter season. We actively searched for the animals during field trips and registered their status as alive, dead, lost transmitter (LT), or radio signal ceased (SC). Due to the occurrence of LT and SC, we proposed eight possible survival scenarios, assuming different combinations of "alive" and "dead" caimans. We analyzed each scenario and compared it between years. In 2018 we found 55.5% dead and 44.5% LT, resulting in survival estimates from 0 to 0.38 according to the scenario. In 2019 we found 50% alive, 33% LT, and 17% SC, with survival varying from 0.5 to 1. Survival in 2019 was higher than in 2018 in all scenarios. Assuming predation was the most plausible cause of LT, with the most likely scenarios estimated 0% survival in 2018 (although the minimum detectable by this methodology is 5%) and 67% in 2019. This information can be helpful for ranching with release programs, as it allows for a better adjustment of the reintroduction rate and opens up the possibility of earlier releases when resources to keep animals in enclosures are scarce.</p> </div> </div> </div> Evangelina V Viotto, Melina Soledad Simoncini , Luciano M Verdade, Joaquin L Navarro, Carlos Piña Copyright (c) 2022 Evangelina V Viotto, Melina Soledad Simoncini , Luciano M Verdade, Joaquin L Navarro, Carlos Piña Mon, 29 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Mass poisonings of the Vulnerable Andean condor prompt national strategy against the use of toxic baits in Argentina <p>Massive deaths of Andean condors (<em>Vultur gryphus</em>) prompted a National Strategy Against the Use of Toxic Baits in Argentina, based on 6 lines of action: 1) delivery of kits and unified intervention protocols in cases of wildlife poisoning, 2) community education programs, 3) surveys of rural people, 4) training courses and participatory construction workshops, 5) toxicology studies, and 6) an academic-scientific committee made up of specialists in toxicology. The strategy was developed in the 14 provinces of the country where the Andean condor is distributed. 554 people from 166 institutions have participated in the trainings and workshops, reporting 200 poisoning events involving more than 21000 individuals from 61 species. Birds and mammals were the groups most affected, and further, human victims show the impact on public health. 19 toxic substances were identified, mainly insecticides. This study proved that carbofuran is the toxic most used. Analysis of bait types suggests a significant conflict with carnivores. 195 surveys revealed that almost half of the farmers know people who use toxic baits and that the negative perception towards some species could determine their use. The strategy began to address the problem of the use of toxic baits in Argentina in a strategic, participatory and regional way, through the management of public policies and scientific research. We propose actions to work on the causes that lead to the application of this dangerous practice. Given its extensive use, we believe that this strategy can be adapted and applied in other countries in the region.</p> N. Luis Jácome, Gabriela Abarzua, Vanesa Astore, Rayen Estrada Pacheco Copyright (c) 2022 Ethnobiology and Conservation Wed, 13 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Deontology or consequentialism? Ethical approach on the use and management of wildlife, illustrated by the use of caimans in Latin America <p>Government decision-makers are frequently faced with the choice of enabling or maintaining conservation programs based on the sustainable use of wild species – usually beneficial to both human populations and the ecosystem - or adhering to the ethical or moral requirements of those who oppose the commercial use of animals. The purpose of this document is to discuss this conflicting situation.</p> <p>The continuing decline in the populations of wild species, as well as the high commercial interest in them, promoted the establishment of Sustainable Use strategies in the mid-20<sup>th</sup> century, which resulted in significant population recovery of several species. However, a growing number of Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) deepened the combat against the exploitation of animals for human consumption in all forms, beginning in the early 21<sup>st</sup> century and intensifying in the second decade, based on alleged ethical principles, and claiming for compassion towards wild animals. In this context, it is currently very common to observe government officials tending to ban extractive activities, more often out of fear of condemnation in social networks than based on professional conviction. In the case of management of wild species, this approach is characterized by a lack of scientific basis, empathy with indigenous and rural communities, and of concrete alternative ideas to the modes of exploitation that have been developed so far.</p> Alejandro Larriera Copyright (c) 2022 Ethnobiology and Conservation Tue, 22 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Priority areas and integrated actions for the conservation of Amazonian turtle populations historically over-exploited by humans <p>The definition of priority areas for conservation and integrated management actions are essential for the effective maintenance and recovery of natural populations, especially for species overexploited by humans. Amazonian chelonians are a food resource historically used by people, resulting in the decline of species populations and worsening the risk of local extinctions. In this paper, we establish priority areas and define integrated conservation actions for populations of three Amazonian chelonians most threatened by human consumption in Brazil (<em>Podocnemis expansa, P. unifilis</em> and<em> P. sextuberculata</em>). To do so, we used 15 prioritization criteria (ecological, logistical and socioeconomic) estimated with 30 years monitoring data in 15 areas by the Amazon Chelonian Program (in portugues Projeto Quelonios da Amazonia, PQA). Each criterion presented four levels of priority with scores increasing according to the relevance for conservation of chelonian populations. The sum of the scores obtained in each area of the PQA allowed a ranking and four categories of importance for conservation to be defined. We also analyzed the similarity of scores among areas of the PQA and among the prioritization criteria to evaluate the application of integrated conservation action strategies. The areas of PQA were classified as Extremely Important for Conservation (Rebio Trombetas River, Middle Xingu River, Middle Araguaia River, Upper Guaporé River), Very Highly Important for Conservation (Middle Purus River, Middle Juruá River, Crixás-Açu River Mouth, Sub-middle Tapajós River); Highly Important for Conservation (Sub-Middle Araguaia River, Amazonas River Mouth, Middle Mortes River); and Important for Conservation (Middle Guaporé River, Lower Branco River, Flechal River, Afuá River). The prioritization and similarity analyses can support the development of a national integrated plan of conservation actions to reduce the overexploitation of Amazon chelonian populations, according to the ecological, logistical and socioeconomic needs of each PQA area.</p> Fábio Brega Gamba, Guth Berger Falcon, Melina Soledad Simoncini, Rafael Antônio Machado Balestra, Adriana Malvasio Copyright (c) 2022 Fábio Brega Gamba, Guth Berger Falcon, Melina Soledad Simoncini, Rafael Antônio Machado Balestra, Adriana Malvasio Mon, 29 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Changing trends: Beliefs and attitudes toward sharks and implications for conservation <p>As history shows, and contrary to modern western society’s feelings, sharks were once respected and worshipped. Sensationalized media coverage negatively impacts the public’s perception of sharks and lack of information about management and conservation options negatively impacts policy makers’ ability to keep shark populations healthy. Understanding that people’s attitudes about sharks will influence their willingness to find a way to coexist with them, it is essential to acknowledge these attitudes when developing conservation measures. Just as risk management policies must adapt to new evidence-based information, so must shark conservation efforts adapt to the realities of public opinion. This perspective review, focused on the psychological aspects of human-shark interactions, highlights some of the current research, mostly from Australia and other countries where those interactions are more salient, on the beliefs and attitudes people have toward sharks. With this review, we hope to help policymakers and stakeholders, such as Environmental Non-Governmental Organizations (ENGOs) and the zoological community to better address some of the shark conservation challenges ahead.</p> Joao Neves, Terran McGinnis, Jean-Christophe Giger Copyright (c) 2022 Ethnobiology and Conservation Thu, 19 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Land-use, abuse, and institutional attempts for correcting human-nature relationships: Europe vs The Americas <p style="margin-bottom: 0cm; font-style: normal; font-weight: normal; line-height: 100%;" align="justify"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Warnings regarding pollution, soil-fertility </span><span style="font-size: medium;">losses</span><span style="font-size: medium;">, mass extinction, Climate Change, and the</span><span style="font-size: medium;">ir</span> <span style="font-size: medium;">effects on</span><span style="font-size: medium;"> humans </span><span style="font-size: medium;">are widely known since at least 1970, </span><span style="font-size: medium;">s</span><span style="font-size: medium;">till land-abuse pervasively remains. </span><span style="font-size: medium;">W</span><span style="font-size: medium;">e aimed to contribute to understand </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><em>why</em></span> <span style="font-size: medium;">in order to</span><span style="font-size: medium;"> explor</span><span style="font-size: medium;">e</span><span style="font-size: medium;"> how to reduce </span><span style="font-size: medium;">land-abuse</span><span style="font-size: medium;">. </span><span style="font-size: medium;">W</span><span style="font-size: medium;">e critically compare</span><span style="font-size: medium;">d</span><span style="font-size: medium;"> the </span><span style="font-size: medium;">history, habitats, and land-uses of the </span><span style="font-size: medium;">Americas </span><span style="font-size: medium;">with</span><span style="font-size: medium;"> both Alpine and Lowland Europe </span><span style="font-size: medium;">focusing on</span><span style="font-size: medium;"> the causes and consequences of land-abuse</span><span style="font-size: medium;">. We chronologically analyze</span><span style="font-size: medium;">d</span> <span style="font-size: medium;">the </span><span style="font-size: medium;">development of the </span><span style="font-size: medium;">recent</span><span style="font-size: medium;"> European efforts for re-appraising ancestral, more sustainable land-uses (AD 1938-2018). </span><span style="font-size: medium;">M</span><span style="font-size: medium;">illionaire profits </span><span style="font-size: medium;">have fixed a dominant culture of </span><span style="font-size: medium;">subordination of nature and people to a role of mere </span><span style="font-size: medium;">commodity-</span><span style="font-size: medium;">producers </span><span style="font-size: medium;">in the Americas, </span><span style="font-size: medium;">making</span> <span style="font-size: medium;">difficult for</span> <span style="font-size: medium;">environmentalism</span><span style="font-size: medium;"> to penetrate into </span><span style="font-size: medium;">decision-making</span><span style="font-size: medium;"> and institutions. </span><span style="font-size: medium;">Low-scale, </span><span style="font-size: medium;">sustainable</span><span style="font-size: medium;"> agriculture </span><span style="font-size: medium;">remain</span><span style="font-size: medium;">s</span><span style="font-size: medium;"> traditionally</span><span style="font-size: medium;"> practiced by </span><span style="font-size: medium;">Neotropical and Alpine </span><span style="font-size: medium;">indigenous peoples, but </span><span style="font-size: medium;">became</span><span style="font-size: medium;"> increasingly abandoned by lowland </span><span style="font-size: medium;">E</span><span style="font-size: medium;">uropeans </span><span style="font-size: medium;">and Americas’ landlords </span><span style="font-size: medium;">since the first Industrial Revolution. The most effective European efforts for conserving the environment emerged and developed </span><span style="font-size: medium;">as a sort of</span><span style="font-size: medium;"> interplay with </span><span style="font-size: medium;">the </span><span style="font-size: medium;">teaching </span><span style="font-size: medium;">of </span><span style="font-size: medium;">Ecology and Conservation in universities </span><span style="font-size: medium;">that </span><span style="font-size: medium;">train</span><span style="font-size: medium;">ed</span> <span style="font-size: medium;">prospects of </span><span style="font-size: medium;">both political activists and decision makers.</span> <span style="font-size: medium;">A</span><span style="font-size: medium;"> result i</span><span style="font-size: medium;">s</span> <span style="font-size: medium;">the </span><span style="font-size: medium;">preeminently </span><span style="font-size: medium;">scholarly-made,</span><span style="font-size: medium;"> top-down </span><span style="font-size: medium;">impulse</span> <span style="font-size: medium;">to sustainable land-use in </span><span style="font-size: medium;">West</span> <span style="font-size: medium;">Europe. </span><span style="font-size: medium;">Instead</span><span style="font-size: medium;">, the </span><span style="font-size: medium;">most effective</span> <span style="font-size: medium;">environmentalists</span><span style="font-size: medium;"> of </span><span style="font-size: medium;">the </span><span style="font-size: medium;">Americas’ </span><span style="font-size: medium;">are </span><span style="font-size: medium;">not biologists but </span><span style="font-size: medium;">grassrooted movements </span><span style="font-size: medium;">culturally </span><span style="font-size: medium;">influenced or </span><span style="font-size: medium;">directly </span><span style="font-size: medium;">led by</span> <span style="font-size: medium;">indigenous peoples. </span><span style="font-size: medium;">Nowadays</span><span style="font-size: medium;">, </span><span style="font-size: medium;">Europe </span><span style="font-size: medium;">provides</span><span style="font-size: medium;"> finnancial and economic support to the traditional agriculture of </span><span style="font-size: medium;">it</span><span style="font-size: medium;">s</span><span style="font-size: medium;"> indigenous </span><span style="font-size: medium;">farmers</span><span style="font-size: medium;">. </span><span style="font-size: medium;">Europe-emulators of the</span><span style="font-size: medium;"> Americas</span> <span style="font-size: medium;">shou</span><span style="font-size: medium;">ld seek to outbalance land-abuse by supporting </span><span style="font-size: medium;">and learning from </span><span style="font-size: medium;">the land-uses of Americas’ indigenous farmers too</span><span style="font-size: medium;">.</span></span></span></p> Edgardo I. Garrido-Pérez, David Tella-Ruiz, Katia Laura Sidali, Juan G. Lincango-Vega, Luisa M. Vélez-Sabando, Luis D. Andrade-Alcívar Copyright (c) 2022 Ethnobiology and Conservation Wed, 22 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Traditional knowledge applied to hunting and breeding of the vulnerable Yellow-footed Tortoise (Chelonoidis denticulatus) in the Cazumbá-Iracema Extractive Reserve, Acre, Brazil <p>Hunting is intensely practiced in the Amazon and is related to the survival of riverside communities as a source of income and food. This study was conducted at Resex Cazumbá-Iracema between June and November, in the dry season and the beginning of the flood period. Twenty-one families were monitored, six hunting events were followed, and 23 C. denticulatus individuals were recorded, all of which were categorized as opportunistic. Among the studied individuals, 11 were males and 12 females, and those with a carapace over 40 cm were considered adults. The tortoise is captured mainly for food, but there are beliefs concerning its medicinal use in treating inflammatory diseases. Reptiles, in general, are among the least hunted species for food in the Amazon. This preference may be related to the higher mammals’ biomass and the birds’ species richness. However, its importance for consumption may vary according to the location.</p> <p> </p> Marcela Álvares Oliveira, Ana Paula Vitoria Costa-Rodrigues, Armando Muniz Calouro Copyright (c) 2022 Ethnobiology and Conservation Mon, 02 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Celebrating the 10th Anniversary of Ethnobiology and Conservation Ulysses Paulino Albuquerque, Michelle Cristine Medeiros Jacob, Rômulo Romeu Nóbrega Alves Copyright (c) 2022 Ulysses Paulino Albuquerque; Romulo RN Alves; Michelle Cristine Medeiros Jacob Tue, 23 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000