Guide for Authors


1. General

Manuscripts may be submitted only in American or British English (never a combination of both). It is important that authors check whether all files (manuscript, figures, tables, etc.) have been duly sent.

A Cover Letter should be sent with the manuscript. This letter should emphasize the manuscript’s relevance and must include a statement that all authors are aware of the contents of the paper.

Authors are requested to submit the names and emails of 3-5 potential referees working outside their home institution(s). Authors may also indicate referees they would prefer not to review the manuscript. Such suggestions will be regarded as a guide only and the Editors are under no obligation to follow them. An Editor-in-Chief will select the most appropriate Editor to manage peer-review of each manuscript, and authors must request a particular Editor.

In case of acceptance, authors must pay a fee, which is fully reverted to hosting maintenance and improvements of the journal. The publication fee is USD 200.


2. Nomenclatures, non-English names, units and abbreviations

The species names should follow the international standard codes (e.g., International Code of Botanical Nomenclature, International Code of Zoological Nomenclature). Use italics for non-English words in the text, except in proper names. Non-standard or uncommon abbreviations should be avoided, but if essential they must be defined upon their first mention. Only SI units should be used.


3. Ethical considerations

Investigations with human subjects must state in the Methods section that the research followed the guidelines of the Declaration of Helsinki and Tokyo for humans, and was approved by the institutional human experimentation committee or equivalent, and that informed consent was obtained.

Studies using experimental animals must state in the Methods section that the research was conducted in accordance with the internationally accepted principles for laboratory animal use. For cases of wild species collected, the license number of the collection must be provided, as well as the name of the agency that granted the approval.

The absence of information about the ethical procedures of the work may result in rejection of the author’s paper by referees and/or editors.


4. Plant and animal collections

The authors should cite the institutions where the collected biological material was deposited. Especially in the case of plants, it is necessary to also refer to the number of the collector or number of deposit of each specimen.


5. Chemical formulas and equations

Chemical formulas should be sent as figures. Simple equations (one line), if possible, should be typed in the text (In these cases, use the solidus “/” for small fractional terms). “Powers of e” are often more conveniently denoted by exp. Already complex equations should be sent only as figures. Please, do not embed in text Microsoft© Mathematics™ equations, Microsoft© Office™ 2007/2010 equations or any other equation originating from text editor tools that you use.


6. Types of papers

6.1. Short communication (SC). This is a brief manuscript with a concise but independent report, representing a significant contribution. SC is not a way of publishing preliminary results. A SC should possess up to 5 pages (according to the paper template) and follow the same structure as a full paper. A maximum of 3 illustrations (figures or tables) are allowed.

6.2. Original research article. This paper should include the following items: Title page (with Abstract), Introduction, Material and Methods, Results and Discussion, Conclusions, Acknowledgments and References.

6.3. Review. This work addresses a subject that is related to the scope this journal. The authors are free to establish the subdivisions of the review paper.

6.4. Hypothesis. A hypothesis article should present an untested original hypothesis backed up solely by a survey of previously published results rather than any new evidence. Hypothesis articles should not be reviews and should not contain new data. A hypothesis should possess up to 3 pages (including references) in the format of submission. A maximum of 3 illustrations (figures or tables) are allowed.


7. Text formatting

7.1. General formatting of manuscripts:

Publication of any paper in EC requires strict conformance to the paper template available here. [RV1] Standard font is Arial (12 pt), and the entire body in single space, with all pages numbered and all text justified-aligned, except for the manuscript title which should appear in bold and centered. For indentations, use tab stops or other commands, not the space bar. The default page size is A4 with all margins at 2.5 cm.

The file formats acceptable for the main manuscript document are docx (Microsoft© Word™ 2007 or higher) or doc format (compatible with all versions of the MS Word™ and most other text editors – e.g., OpenOffice, LibreOffice/BrOffice).


7.2. Article structure


Title Page

This page should include:

Manuscript Title – Original and concise, in bold and centered.

Author names and affiliations – Provide full author names. The authors’ affiliations should be placed immediately below the list of authors. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript number immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Affiliations must have the full postal address and e-mail address. The corresponding author should be indicated with a superscript asterisk (*) after his/her affiliation number

Abstract: Insert an abstract up to 250 words in title page. The abstract should contain brief information that addresses the study, with emphasis on the main results. Three to five keywords should also be given after the abstract.



The main sections of the manuscript should be: Introduction, Material and Methods, Results and Discussion (combined or separated), Conclusions and References. The headings should be indicated in bold. If subsections are necessary, they shall have their headings highlighted in italics. Acknowledgments of people, grants, funds, etc. should be placed in a separate section before the reference list. The names of funding organizations should be written in full.

The title page and the sections should follow the example of arrangement and organization as demonstrated in the template.



Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text (e.g., Table 1,… Table 2). Tables should also have a title (above the table) that summarizes the whole table. A detailed legend may then follow, but it should be concise.

Tables should be formatted using the 'Table object' in MS Word™ processing program or equivalent to ensure that columns of data are kept aligned when the file is sent electronically for review. Columns and rows of data should be made visibly distinct by ensuring that the borders of each cell display as black lines. Commas should not be used in place of decimal points. Color and shading may not be used; parts of the table can be highlighted using symbols or bold text, the meaning of which should be explained in a table legend.

The tables should be inserted in the text with the respective indications and information.

Larger datasets or tables too wide for a landscape page can be uploaded separately as additional files. Additional files will not be displayed in the final, laid-out PDF of the article, but a link will be provided to the files as supplied by the author.



Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text. Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files (Ex: For Figure 1, the file name can be Figure 1.tif).

For vector graphics, the preferred format is EPS.

For color or grayscale photographs (halftones): Use TIFF format and minimum of 300 dpi.

In other types of images use at least 600 dpi and choose the tiff format.

The figures should be inserted in the text with the respective indications and information. In addition, we ask authors to send the figures in separate files.


Additional Files

Additional files should also be indicated in the text in sequential order (Add file 1, 2, ...) and should be submitted in separate files with logical names (e.g., Add file 1.mpg, 2.xls Add file, etc. ..) Similar figures, captions or legends for additional files must be specified after the references.




Citations must be organized in alphabetical order. Cite references in the text by name and year in parentheses. Cite only the first author followed by "et al." for studies with three or more authors. Different citations should be separated by a semicolon. If a citation includes sources by the same author, published in the same year, distinguishing letters from the references (a, b, c, etc.) are used, separated by a comma but no space.




While zootherapeutic practices have wide geographical distributions and deep cultural origins (Alves et al. 2010; Cooper 2008),


…including use for treatment of diseases in humans and animals (Albuquerque et al. 2007; Barboza et al. 2007; Vieira et al. 2009a,b,c).


According to Alves and Rosa (2006, 2007)…


"Personal communication" will not be accepted as a reference. Citation of a reference as "in press" implies that the item has been accepted for publication.


Reference list


The list of references should only include works that are cited in the text (published or accepted for publication). Personal communications and unpublished works should only be mentioned in the text. References should be listed in alphabetical order, with the mention of all authors in each study.


References should follow the style format below:


Journal article

Albuquerque UP, Lucena RFP, Monteiro JM, Florentino ATN, Almeida CFCBR (2006) Evaluating Two Quantitative Ethnobotanical Techniques. Ethnobotany Research & Applications 4:51-60


Alves RRN, Rosa IL (2007a) Zootherapy goes to town: The use of animal-based remedies in urban areas of NE and N Brazil. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 113:541-555.


Alves RRN, Rosa IL (2007b) Zootherapeutic practices among fishing communities in North and Northeast Brazil: A comparison. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 111: 82-103.


Article by DOI


Kretser HE, Johnson MF, Hickey LM, Zahler P, Bennett EL (2012) Wildlife trade products available to U.S. military personnel serving abroad. Biodiversity and Conservation  doi: 10.1007/s10531-012-0232-3


Book/ Edited book


Alves RRN, Souto WMS, Mourão JS (2010) A Etnozoologia no Brasil: Importância, Status atual e Perspectivas. 1 ed. NUPEEA, Recife, PE, Brazil


Berg BL (2001) Qualitative research methods for the social sciences. 14 ed. Allyn & Bacon - A Pearson Education Company, Boston, USA


Berkes F (2008) Sacred Ecology. 2 ed. Routledge, New York/ Oxon, UK



Book chapter


Stearman AM (2000) A Pound of Flesh: Social Change and Modernization as Factors in Hunting Sustainability Among Neotropical Indigenous Societies. In: Robinson JG, Bennett EL (eds) Hunting for sustainability in tropical forests. 1 ed. Columbia University Press, New York, pp. 233-250


Pellens R, Garay I, Grandcolas P (2009) Biodiversity conservation and canagement in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest: Every fragment must be considered. In: Kudrow NJ (ed) Conservation of Natural Resources. 1 edn. Nova Science Publishers, Inc., New York, pp. 101-136


Web page

Bleisch B, Brockelman W, Timmins RJ, Nadler T, Thun S, Das J, Yongcheng L (2008) Trachypithecus phayrei (In: IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2011). IUCN. [] Accessed 29 April 2011


Gravlee L (2002) The Uses and Limitations of Free Listing in Ethnographic Research. [] Accessed 30 December 2010


PhD thesis/ Dissertations


Henfrey TB (2002) Ethnoecology, Resource Use, Conservation and Development in a Wapishana Community in the South Rupununi, Guyana. PhD Thesis, University of Kent, Canterbury, UK


Contesso C (2009) Bushmeat and European migratory birds conservation. MSc. dissertation, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Falls Church, VA, USA


Swensson J (2005) Bushmeat Trade in Techiman, Ghana, West Africa. Undergraduate thesis, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden


Ethnobiology and Conservation Contact 


Dr. Rômulo R. N. Alves

Universidade Estadual da Paraíba, Brazil



Dr. Ulysses Paulino de Albuquerque

Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Brazil