Ethnobiology and Conservation en-US Ethnobiology and Conservation 2238-4782 <p>This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the <a href="" target="_blank" rel="license noopener">Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY).</a> The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.</p> Social perceptions of ecosystem services delivered by coastal wetlands: their value and the threats they face in northwestern Mexico <p>Wetlands are recognized for their socio-environmental value and capacity to provide ecosystem services (ES) that are currently threatened by diverse drivers, including those derived from climate change. These changes in the ES delivery may not be recognized by their users, and to determine the extent to which communities are aware of the presence and importance of coastal wetlands, participatory workshops were held in four coastal communities in northwestern Mexico following the Metaplan methodology. The effects produced by extreme rainfall events (as a manifestation of climate change) on wetlands and their ES, were also analyzed. Four coastal wetlands (estuaries, saltmarshes, mangroves, and lagoons) were among the most important ecosystems, while poor fishing practices, mangrove deforestation, and pollution, were identified as their main threats. Climate change, land use changes and water mismanagement, also threat wetlands. There were a few differences among communities, mostly related to the number of ES and their categories; nonetheless, saltmarshes and mangroves were priority wetlands in the communities included in this study, recognizing the ES they provide. Most of the participants in all communities coincided on the main threats and pressures facing wetlands and their ES, particularly those related to climate change, which also affect their livelihoods. But, despite the awareness, regional coastal wetlands continue to decline, considering that participatory processes are necessary for establishing the importance of wetlands while incorporating traditional knowledge, alternative actions, and novel solutions into management actions that may be scaled from the community level into regional development strategies.</p> Aimée Cervantes Escobar Arturo Ruiz-Luna César Alejandro Berlanga Robles Copyright (c) 2023 Aimée Cervantes Escobar, Arturo Ruiz-Luna, César Alejandro Berlanga Robles 2023-02-16 2023-02-16 12 10.15451/ec2023-02-12.06-1-15 Knowledge, use and traditional management of wildlife in the community of Zoquital, Morelos, Mexico <p>Through their traditional productive activities, peasant and indigenous communities have generated knowledge on the use and management of wildlife to satisfy their needs for food, medicine or even to complement their basic food basket through the marketing of the species. The objective of this research was to analyze the knowledge, use and traditional management of wildlife in a rural community in the southwestern part of the state of Morelos, Mexico. The methodology included participant observation, semistructured interviews and guided tours and methods for obtaining and analyzing quantitative data “such as analysis of variance, a Mann‒Whitney U test and X<sup>2</sup> test”. The interviewees recognized a total of 57 species of wildlife, of which 22 are used as food, medicine, ornament, amulets, furs and agricultural tools in four traditional production units. In addition, eight species were reported in the oral tradition. Four hunting techniques and five weapons were documented, with the shotgun being the most commonly used. Two factors regulate hunting in the community: the closed season and religion. A total of 62,454 kg of useful biomass was recorded, with mammals being the group that contributed the most kilograms, followed by reptiles and birds. There were no significant differences in species consumption, across months or rainy and dry seasons due to factors regulating hunting. Based on the total value index of the species, <em>Odocoileus </em><em>virginianus</em> was the most important for the inhabitants of the community.</p> Mónica Bello Román Alejandro García Flores José Manuel Pino Moreno Copyright (c) 2023 Mónica Bello Román, Alejandro García Flores, José Manuel Pino Moreno 2023-03-28 2023-03-28 12 10.15451/ec2023-03-12.08-1-18 Applying the World-System theory in the conservation sciences to understand COVID-19 pandemic as a socio-environmental synergy <p><span class="fontstyle0">The pandemic of COVID-19 caused a global epidemiological, economic and social crisis. In the conservation sciences, several studies have focused efforts on understanding the effects of declining human activities on biodiversity, understanding the pandemic as an anthropogenic "pause"of global scale. But the impact of the pandemic was not the same for everyone. Different impacts are consequences of political and ethical questions about who and what can pause or be paused, according to what authority and under what conditions. Therefore, the historical asymmetrical relations of power in the World System are crucial to understanding environmental impacts and thinking about solutions in the post-pandemic world. This article discusses why historical local-global inequalities should be an indispensable reference variable for examining the different experiences caused by the pandemic in biodiversity, aiming at advancing the discussion about the society-nature relationship that the pandemic has spurred. To do so, we use the World-System Theory, initially proposed by Wallerstein, whose analytical categories allow us to situate nature conservation within broader economic, historical, and contemporary contexts. We argue for the understanding of biodiversity conservation in the context of the historical-sociological and global-local relations of the World-System. Finally, we discuss that the COVID-19 pandemic should be understood as an emergent phenomenon of the society-nature dynamic of the world-system.</span></p> María Hirschfeld Luiz Roberto R Faria Gabriel de Siqueira Gil Carlos Roberto Fonseca Copyright (c) 2023 María Hirschfeld, Luiz Roberto R Faria, Gabriel de Siqueira Gil, Carlos Roberto Fonseca 2023-03-07 2023-03-07 12 10.15451/ec2023-03-12.02-1-15 Forest species for biocultural restoration in eastern Amazon, Brazil <p> <span class="fontstyle0">Amazon deforestation damages nature, people, and their closer biocultural relationship, eroding fundamental elements for its reproduction. The recognition and use of traditional knowledge to plan and implement restoration efforts are essential to its success. This study identified forest tree species of biocultural value for indigenous communities, </span><span class="fontstyle2">quilombolas</span><span class="fontstyle0">, and settled farmers in Maranhão state, eastern Brazilian Amazon. Semi-structured interviews, informal conversations, Free Lists, and guided walks were carried out in three different landscapes to identify species with ecological importance and/or use-value according to local communities’ perceptions. Eight categories of species use were defined (food, woody, medicinal, income, cultural, hunting, honey, and energy); and the Smith Salience Index (S) was utilized to identify species with higher importance. A total of 58 native trees (</span><span class="fontstyle3">S &gt; </span><span class="fontstyle4">0</span><span class="fontstyle3">.</span><span class="fontstyle4">1</span><span class="fontstyle0">) were listed as biocultural species, five of which were cited for ecological importance only, without a use-value associated. The highest number of species with cultural salience (</span><span class="fontstyle3">S &gt; </span><span class="fontstyle4">0</span><span class="fontstyle3">.</span><span class="fontstyle4">1</span><span class="fontstyle0">) was reported in the indigenous group (47), followed by settlers (11) and </span><span class="fontstyle2">quilombolas </span><span class="fontstyle0">(9). Among the indigenous, we identified a higher number of uses for the same species, and a remarkable spiritual relationship with plants from their cosmological vision. The reproduction of biocultural values in societies needs to receive more attention in the restoration science and praxis. The identification of species of biocultural value can serve as an important ally for the assertive design of conservation and restoration initiatives.</span> </p> Vivian do Carmo Loch Danielle Celentano Raysa Valeria Carvalho Saraiva Swanni T. Alvarado Flávia de Freitas Berto Raymony Tayllon Serra João Castro Barroso Tatuxa'a Awa Guajá Guillaume Xavier Rousseau Copyright (c) 2023 Vivian do Carmo Loch, Danielle Celentano, Raysa Valeria Carvalho Saraiva, Swanni T. Alvarado, Flávia de Freitas Berto , Raymony Tayllon Serra, João Castro Barroso, Tatuxa'a Awa Guajá, Guillaume Xavier Rousseau 2023-03-10 2023-03-10 12 10.15451/ec2023-02-12.03-1-15 Can the traditional use of native plant species in rural communities in the Brazilian semi-arid region be affected by global warming? <p>Extreme climate change events are capable of modifying the physiognomy of landscapes, impacting millions of people around the world. Consequently, the traditional knowledge of people residing in these regions about local natural resources may also be affected. To identify how the traditional use of native plant species can be influenced by a change in the availability of these species in a rural community in a semi-arid region, in a scenario of climatic extremes, we developed a Pressure Indicator for Use Preference (PIUP), seeking to identify the species under the greatest pressure of use. The study was carried out in the São Francisco Rural Community, in the Cabaceiras Municipality, in the semi-arid region of the Paraíba State, with 42 local informants. The species with the highest PIUP had their potential distribution for the year 2050 modeled using the HadGEM2-ES climate model under the RCP4.5 scenario, as an optimistic forecast, and the RCP8.5 scenario, as a pessimistic forecast. The construction of the models identified a potential increase in the coverage area of ​​all analyzed species, with a greater territorial extension for the RCP8.5 scenario. <em>Myracrodoun urundeuva</em>, <em>Mimosa tenuiflora</em> and <em>Croton blanchetianus</em> were the species with the lowest potential area growth for the year 2050. The high use of species, especially <em>M. urundeuva</em>, associated with reduced growth in a more arid environment is a worrying factor for the population structure of the species, as well as for rural communities that make representative use of the species.</p> José Ribamar Farias Lima Thamires Kelly Nunes Carvalho Ramon Santos Souza Robbie Hart Rainer W. Bussmann Henrique Fernandes Magalhães Regina Célia da Silva Oliveira Reinaldo Farias Paiva de Lucena Copyright (c) 2023 José Ribamar Farias Lima, Thamires Kelly Nunes Carvalho, Ramon Santos Souza, Robbie Hart, Rainer W. Bussmann, Henrique Fernandes Magalhães, Regina Célia da Silva Oliveira, Reinaldo Farias Paiva de Lucena 2023-06-05 2023-06-05 12 10.15451/ec2023-06-12.11-1-21 Stage-based model of population dynamics and harvest of Broad-snouted caiman (<i>Caiman latirostris<i>) under different management scenarios <p>We created a matrix model structured by stages (divided into 5 stages) to evaluate the population dynamics of <em>Caiman latirostris</em> and the population behavior at different management intensities through ranching and hunting of adult individuals. We generated 5000 matrices by sampling the mean and variance values of survivals (pi) and hatching for each stage. For each matrix, we obtained the growth rate λ and performed elasticity analyses. Modifying the mean matrix obtained from the previous analysis, we evaluated different scenarios of ranching, reintroduction, and hunting of adult females of the last two stages (E) raised here (class III animals, &gt; 60 cm snout-vent length, divided into two: E4 and E5). We obtained a mean λ of 1.035 (range 0.88 − 1.12), and 11.9% of the simulations had λ &lt; 1. The vital rate with the highest elasticity and variance was that of the adult females of the last stage. Natural populations can tolerate a maximum of 5% adult female hunting, and ranching can extract 55% of nests from the wild without reintroduction or 80% of nest harvest, returning to the wild at least 3% of hatched animals in the ranching programs. Our model showed that hunting and ranching with reintroduction are feasible strategies to be applied without threatening natural populations. Increasing reintroduction makes it possible to extract more adult individuals and maintain the species’ populations at sustainable levels.</p> Evangelina V. Viotto Joaquín L. Navarro Melina S. Simoncini Carlos Piña Copyright (c) 2023 Evangelina V. Viotto, Joaquín L. Navarro, Melina S. Simoncini, Carlos Piña 2023-01-30 2023-01-30 12 10.15451/ec2023-01-12.01-1-20 Conhecimento Pesqueiro e o Defeso: Preenchendo uma Lacuna Necessária <p>No Brasil, o estabelecimento da política de defeso não tem levado em conta os conhecimentos de pescadores artesanais, que são, comumente, marginalizados e não reconhecidos perante às políticas públicas que os atingem. Em nossos estudos, encontramos uma marcada incompatibilidade entre o conhecimento de pescadores artesanais do estuário do rio Itapicuru, litoral norte da Bahia, sobre o período reprodutivo de algumas espécies marinhas utilizadas como recursos pesqueiros e os períodos de defeso estabelecidos em lei. Os conhecimentos dos pescadores sugerem que duas espécies de robalo bem como quatro espécies de camarão estão sendo protegidas em períodos do ano dissonantes da época reprodutiva percebida pelos pescadores. Propomos, assim, uma mudança nos procedimentos de tomada de decisão subjacentes às legislações de defeso, assim como a revisão da legislação específica para robalos e camarões, levando-se em conta o conhecimento de especialistas tradicionais. Especialmente na formulação de novas políticas de defeso, consideramos fundamental a participação destes últimos. Para alcançar uma compreensão mais robusta e precisa da situação, propomos colocar em diálogo o conhecimento científico acadêmico e os conhecimentos de pescadores artesanais, em uma abordagem de pesquisa participativa. Processos participativos, como os que propomos aqui, e, eventualmente, de coprodução do conhecimento não só permitem melhorar as práticas de gestão e conservação ambiental e formulação de políticas públicas, mas também podem desempenhar um papel de empoderamento para comunidades pesqueiras, assim como para outros povos do campo e povos indígenas.</p> Vitor Renck David Ludwig Irael de Jesus Santos Valdemir Celestino dos Santos Francisco de Assis da Conceição Nelson Amado de Araújo Clecio Cardoso dos Santos Valdomiro José de Oliveira Paride Bollettin José Amorim Reis-Filho Luana Poliseli Charbel El-Hani Copyright (c) 2023 Vitor Renck, David Ludwig, Irael de Jesus Santos, Valdemir Celestino dos Santos, Francisco de Assis da Conceição, Nelson Amado de Araújo, Clecio Cardoso dos Santos, Valdomiro José de Oliveira, Paride Bollettin, José Amorim Reis-Filho, Luana Poliseli, Charbel El-Hani 2023-02-17 2023-02-17 12 10.15451/ec2023-02-12.04-1-8 Exploring biocultural diversity in urban ecosystems: an ethnobiological perspective <p style="font-weight: 400;">Urban ecosystems differ from non-urban ones in the strong and rapid biocultural dynamics generated by the interactions between people from different cultures, at large spatial and temporal scales, and very fast rates. This opinion piece explores the concept of urban ethnobiology as a critical field of research that investigates the complex and dynamic biocultural systems that exist in urban environments. We argue that interactions between humans and other life forms in urban ecosystems are influenced by a characteristic set of social, cultural, and political factors that are linked to urban environments, such as infrastructure development, population density, and governance structures. We emphasize the need for an interdisciplinary approach that brings together experts from different fields to study the inherent complexity of these systems. By examining the sociocultural dynamics that shape the way urban biodiversity is perceived, used, and managed, we can gain deeper insights into the different dimensions of socio-cultural biodiversity in urban areas.</p> Ulysses Albuquerque Ana Ladio Emmanuel Almada Ina Vandebroek María Teresa Pulido Silva Viviane Stern Fonseca-Kruel Copyright (c) 2023 Ulysses Albuquerque; Ana Ladio, Emmanuel Almada, Ina Vandebroek, María Teresa Pulido Silva, Viviane Stern Fonseca-Kruel 2023-06-05 2023-06-05 12 10.15451/ec2023-06-12.10-1-12 Food Biodiversity as an Opportunity to Address the Challenge of Improving Human Diets and Food Security <p>Scientists have warned for several years that food systems have become major drivers of environmental degradation, malnutrition, and food insecurity. In this paper, we present arguments from specialists that suggest that, in the transition to more sustainable food systems, biodiversity and food security can be mutually supportive, rather than conflicting goals. We have divided the opinions of these scientists into two "Big Topics". First, they examine the synergies and challenges of the intersection of biodiversity and food security. In the second section, they explain how various forms of food biodiversity, such as mushrooms, terrestrial wild animals, aquatic animals, algae, and wild plants, can contribute to food security. Finally, we present three main pathways that, according to these experts, could guide the transition toward biodiversity and food security in food systems. </p> Michelle Jacob Alice Medeiros Souza Aline Martins de Carvalho Carlos Frederico Alves de Vasconcelos Neto Daniel Tregidgo Danny Hunter Fillipe de Oliveira Pereira Guilhermo Ros Brull Harriet V. Kunhlein Lara Juliane Guedes da Silva Larissa Mont'Alverne Jucá Seabr Mariana de Paula Drewinski Nelson Menolli Jr Patricia Carignano Torres Pedro Mayor Priscila F. M. Lopes Rafael Ricardo Vasconcelos da Silva Sávio Marcelino Gomes Juliana Kelly da Silva-Maia Copyright (c) 2023 Michelle Jacob, Alice Medeiros Souza, Aline Martins de Carvalho, Carlos Frederico Alves de Vasconcelos Neto, Daniel Tregidgo, Danny Hunter, Fillipe de Oliveira Pereira, Guilhermo Ros Brull, Harriet V. Kunhlein, Lara Juliane Guedes da Silva, Larissa Mont'Alverne Jucá Seabr, Mariana de Paula Drewinski, Nelson Menolli Jr, Patricia Carignano Torres, Pedro Mayor, Priscila F. M. Lopes, Rafael Ricardo Vasconcelos da Silva, Sávio Marcelino Gomes, Juliana Kelly da Silva-Maia 2023-02-10 2023-02-10 12 10.15451/ec2023-02-12.05-1-14 Human consumption of meat from roadkilled animals in the southwestern Amazon <p>The harvest of meat from wild animals is essential for the nutrition of many human populations in the Neotropics. Specific techniques are used to access wild meat, but collecting meat from road killed animals, or purposely run over animals to kill and consume the meat have not been documented so far. In this study we interviewed four residents of the state of Rondônia who claimed to consume roadkilled animals. Respondents cited only medium and large mammals (10 species in total) as the group from which wild meat is harvested, with one respondent claiming to intentionally run over the animals. The interviewees analyse the smell/putrefaction, swelling and exposure of viscera as criteria for not collecting the meat. The meat from roadkilled animals may pose a risk to the health of humans who consume it due to the foodborne diseases it may spread after the decomposition process. In addition, the practice of running over animals for consumption of their meat can cause potential impacts to the fauna and humans since it can reduce animal numbers and also cause serious accidents. Further investigations are needed to clarify whether this is widespread phenomenon occurring in other places of the Amazon and of the Neotropics.</p> Marcela Alvares Oliveira Raul Afonso Pommer-Barbosa Rômulo Romeu Nobrega Alves Hani Rocha El Bizri Mariluce Rezende Messias Carolina Rodrigues da Costa Doria Copyright (c) 2023 Marcela Alvares Oliveira, Raul Afonso Pommer-Barbosa, Rômulo Romeu Nobrega Alves, Hani Rocha El Bizri, Mariluce Rezende Messias, Carolina Rodrigues da Costa Doria 2023-03-03 2023-03-03 12 10.15451/ec2023-03-12.07-1-9