Chasing for water monitors using dogs in West Java, Indonesia: a recreational hunting or pest control?
Wildlife hunting for subsistence is mostly reported in rural areas and performed by traditional people. Whereas it is also practiced in urban areas and targeted for abundant urban species such as the. water monitor (Varanus salvator). Urban hunting may be linked to pest control or pastime activity, which could be beneficial for wildlife management. Our purpose of study was to investigate hunting practice of water monitor in Bogor area, West Java, Indonesia. Data was collected between January and June 2020 to find characteristics and motivation of hunters, their hunting methods, and harvests. We were able to conduct face-to-face interviews with 42 local urban people, whom we followed in four hunting
groups during their search for wildlife. Generally, hunters were students, workers, or laborers, who hunt only during the weekends. To capture water monitors, some hunters used dogs and air rifles, while some others used nothing but bare hands. During our observation, 157 individual water monitors were targeted, but only 150 were caught. There were several motivations for hunters to target water monitors apart from being a hobby, i.e., for food and to eliminate pest. Due to its motivation and strategy, we consider the hunt for water monitor in Bogor area mainly for recreational purposes.
Alves RRN, Souto WMS, Fernandes-Ferreira H, Bezerra DMM, Barboza RRD, VieiraWLS (2018). The Importance of Hunting in Human Societies. In: RRN Alves and UP Albuquerque editors. Ethnozoology : Animals in Our Lives. London: Academic Press, pp. 95-118
Arida E, Boscha E, Fauzi MA, Ardiantoro A, Maireda NL (2021). Beliefs in the Dietary Benefits of Water Monitor, Varanus salvator Meat in Western Java, Indonesia. Journal of Tropical Ethnobiology 4(1): 21-32.
Arida E, Hidayat A, Mulyadi, Maireda NL, Mumpuni (2020). Consumption and Trade of Asian Water Monitor, Varanus salvator as Reliance on Wildlife for livelihoods among Rural Communities in North Sumatera, Indonesia. Jurnal of Tropical Ethnobiology 3(2): 81-92.
Bennett EL, Milner-Gulland EJ, Bakarr M, Eves HE, Robinson JG, Wilkie DS (2002). Hunting the world’s wildlife to extinction. Oryx 36: 328–329.
Claggett PR. (1998). The spatial extent and composition of wildlife harvests among three villages in the Peruvian Amazon. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Latin American Studies Association, Chicago, USA.
Direktorat Jenderal Perlindungan Hutan dan Konservasi Alam [Ditjen PHKA] (2011). Keputusan Dirjen PHKA No, SK.261/IV-KKH/2011 tanggal 30 Desember 2011 tentang Kuota Pengambilan Tumbuhan Alam dan Penangkapan Satwaliar yang Termasuk Appendix CITES Tahun 2012. PHKA, Jakarta, Indonesia.
Dounias E. (2016). From Subsistence to Commercial Hunting: Technical Shift in Cynegetic Practices among Southern Cameroon Forest Dwellers during the 20th Century. Ecology and Society 21(1): 3.
Duffy R, St John FAV, Büscher B, Brockington D (2016). Toward a new understanding of the links between poverty and illegal wildlife hunting: Poverty and Illegal Wildlife Hunting. Conservation Biology 30: 14–22.
De Lisle HF (2007). Observations on Varanus s. salvator in North Sulawesi. Biawak 1: 59–66.
Fa JE, Peres CA, Meeuwig J (2002). Bushmeat Exploitation in Tropical Forest: An Intercontinental Comparison. Conservation Biology. 16 (1): 232-237.
Farida MY, Jumari, Muhammad F (2014). Etnozoologi Suku Anak Dalam (SAD) Kampung Kebun Duren Desa Lantak Seribu Kecamatan Renah Pamenang Kabupaten Merangin Provinsi Jambi. Jurnal Biologi 3(1): 29-39.
Gustaman B (2019). Sisi lain Kehidupan Preangerplanters Dari Perburuan Hingga Gagasan Konservasi Satwa Liar. Patanjala 11(2): 235-248.
Hare B, Tomasello M (2005). Human like social skills in dogs. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 9: 439–44.
Herzegovina H, Kusrini MD, Masy’ud B (2019). Karakteristik dan Persepsi Masyarakat Terhadap Obat Tradisional Berbahan Herpetofauna di Jakarta dan Bandung. Media Konservasi 24(3): 293-302.
Hidayati M (2017). Essay Photography: Baburu Kandiak Di Minangkabau. UPT Perpustakaan ISI, Yogyakarta, Indonesia.
IUCN (2010). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T178214A7499172. Accessed 09 December 2019.
Heberlein TA, Serup B, Ericsson G (2008). Female Hunting Participation in North America and Europe. Human Dimensions of Wildlife 13: 443–458
Hierink F, Bolon I, Durso AM, Ruiz de Castañeda R, Zambrana-Torrelio C, Eskew EA, Ray N (2020). Forty-four years of global trade in CITES-listed snakes: Trends and implications for conservation and public health. Biological Conservation 248: 108601.
Kapfer JM, Munoz DJ, Tomasek T (2012). Use of wildlife detector dogs to study Eastern Box Turtle (Terrapene carolina carolina) populations. Herpetological Conservation and Biology 7: 169–175.
Kartikasari D (2008). Keanekaragaman Jenis dan Nilai Ekonomi Satwa Liar yang digunakan Sebagai Obat di Jawa Tengah. MSi thesis, Institut Pertanian Bogor, Bogor, Indoonesia.
Kasman S (2014). Fungsi Muncak dalam Aktivitas Buru Babi. Studi Kasus: Aktivitas Buru babi di Beberapa Daerah Pinggiran Kota Padang. Undergraduate thesis, Universitas Andalas, Padang, Indonesia.
Koch A, Auliya M, Schmitz A, Kuch U, Böhme W. 2007. Morphological studies on the systematics of Southeast Asian water monitors (Varanus salvator complex): nominotypic populations and taxonomic overview. Mertensiella 16: 109-180.
Koster JM and Noss A (2014). Hunting dogs and the extraction of wildlife as a resource. Free-ranging dogs and wildlife conservation. Oxford University, Pp 265-285.
Koster JM (2009). Hunting dogs in the lowland Neotropics. Journal of Anthropological Research 65: 575–610.
Koster JM (2008). Hunting with dogs in Nicaragua: An optimal foraging approach. Current Anthropology 49:935–44.
Kusrini MD, Alford RA (2006). Indonesia’s Exports of Frogs’ Legs. Traffic Bull 21:13-24.
Latinne A, Saputro S, Kalengkongan J, Kowel CL, Gaghiwu L, Ransaleleh TA, Nangoy MJ, Wahyuni I, Kusumaningrum T, Safari D, Feferholtz Y, Li H, Hagan E, Miller M, Francisco L, Daszak P, Olival KJ, Pamungkas J (2020). Characterizing and quantifying the wildlife trade network in Sulawesi, Indonesia. Global Ecology and Conservation 21: e00887.
Lupo K (2011). A Dog is for Hunting. In: U Albarella and A Trentacoste, editor. Ethnozooarchaeology: The Present and Past of Human-Animal Relationships Oxbow Books.
Luxmoore, R. & B. Groombridge (1990). Asian Monitor Lizards - A Review of Distribution, Status, Exploitation and Trade for Four Selected Species. World Conservation Monitoring Centre (WCMC), Cambridge, UK, pp. 195.
Mardiastuti A, Soehartono T (2003). Perdagangan Reptil Indonesia di Pasar Internasional. Di dalam: Kusrini MD, Mardiastuti A, Harvey T, editor. Konservasi Amfibi dan Reptil di Indonesia. Prosiding Seminar Hasil Penelitian Departemen Konservasi Sumberdaya Hutan. Institut Pertanian Bogor, Bogor, Indonesia.
Marshall BM, Strine C, Hughes AC (2020). Thousands of reptile species threatened by under-regulated global trade. Nature Communications 11: 4738.
McElwee PD (2012). The gender dimensions of the illegal trade in wildlife: Local and global connections in Vietnam. In: ML Cruz-torres and P McElwee, editors. Gender and Sustainability: Lessons from Asia and Latin America Tuckson: The University of Arizona Press, pp. 71–93.
Nijman V, Shepherd CR, Mumpuni, Kate L. Sanders (2012). Over-exploitation and illegal trade of reptiles in Indonesia. Herpetological Journal 22: 83–89.
Nijman V (2015). Water monitor lizards for sale as novelty food in Java, Indonesia. Biawak 9: 28-32.
Nijman V (2016). Perceptions of Sundanese Men Towards the Consumption of Water Monitor Lizard Meat in West Java, Indonesia. Biawak 10: 22-25.
Nussear KE, Esque TC, Heaton JS, Cablk ME, Drake KK, Valentin C, Yee JL, Medica PA (2008). Are wildlife detector dogs or people better at finding desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii). Herpetological Conservation and Biology 3: 103–115.
Padam S, Arvind P, Abba A (2007). House to house survey vs snowball technique for capturing material deaths in India: a search for a cost-effective method. Indian Journal of Medical Research 125(4):550-6.
Pangau-Adam M, Noske R, Muehlenberg M (2012). Wildmeat or Bushmeat? Subsistence Hunting and Commercial Harvesting in Papua (West New Guinea), Indonesia. Human Ecology 40: 611–621.
Pattiselanno F, Mentansan G (2010). Kearifan Tradisional Suku Maybrat Dalam Perburuan Satwa Sebagai Penunjang Pelestarian Satwa. Makara, Sosial Humaniora 14(2): 75-82.
Pattiselanno F, Lubis MI (2014). Hunting at the Abun Regional Marine Protected Areas: A Link Between Wildmeat and Food Security. HAYATI Journal of Biosciences 21: 180–186.
Riley J (2002). Mammals on the Sangihe and Talaud Islands, Indonesia, and the impact of hunting and habitat loss. Oryx 36: 288–296.
Robinson JE, Griffiths RA, Fraser IM, Raharimalala J, Roberts DL, St. John FAV (2018). Supplying the wildlife trade as a livelihood strategy in a biodiversity hotspot. Ecology and Society 23
Rominto, Barlian E (2019). Olahraga Tradisional Buru Babi. Universitas Negeri Padang. Jurnal Patriot 1(3). https://doi.org/10.24036/patriot.v1i2.463.
Romanoff S (1984). Matses adaptations in the Peruvian Amazon. Ph.D Dissertation, Columbia University.
Scheffers BR, Oliveira BF, Lamb I, Edwards DP (2019). Global wildlife trade across the tree of life. Science 366: 71–76.
Shine R, Harlow PS, Keogh JS, Boeadi (1996). Commercial harvesting of giant lizards: the biology of water monitors, Varanus salvator, in southern Sumatra. Biological Conservation 77: 125–134.
Shine R, Harlow P, Ambariyanto, Boeadi, Mumpuni, Keogh JS (1998). Monitoring monitors: a biological perspective on the commercial harvesting of Indonesian reptiles. Mertensiella 9: 61–68.
Seprianto O (2019). Modal Sosial Pada Kelompok Buru Babi di Nagari Lubuk Gadang Kecamatan Sangir Kabupaten Solok Selatan. Undergraduate thesis, Universitas Andalas, Padang, Indonesia.
Situngkir SVR (2009). Perdagangan dan Pemanfaatan Ular Secara Tradisional di Wilayah Bogor. Undergraduate thesis, Institut Pertanian Bogor, Bogor, Indonesia.
Smith NJH (1976). Utilization of game along Brazil’s transamazon highway. Acta Amazonia 6:455–66.
Uyeda L, Iskandar E, Purbatrapsila A, Pamungkas J, Wirsing A, Kyes R (2014). Water Monitor Lizard (Varanus salvator) Satay: A Treatment for Skin Ailments in Muarabinuangeun and Cisiih, Indoneisa. Biawak 8(1): 35-38.
Uyeda LT (2015). The Water Monitor Lizard Varanus salvator, Behaviour, Ecology, and Human Dimensions in Banten, Indonesia. A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. University of Washington.
How to Cite
This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.