Freelisting as a suitable method to estimate the composition and harvest rates of hunted species in tropical forests
Keywords:Wildlife, Hunting, Participatory methods, Local communities, Amazon
The aim of this study was to test the use of measures obtained from freelisting as possible surrogates of the harvest rate of game species. For this purpose, we interviewed 100 rural and urban hunters in southwestern Amazonia to obtain the frequency of citations of each hunted species through freelisting and gather information on the number of individuals hunted per species in the last five hunting events through hunting recalls. We assessed the relationship between the percentage of records per species by each method through a generalized linear model, and then compared the predicted values obtained from this model with the values observed in our dataset using Pearson’s correlation. During freelisting, forty-three taxa were listed in 608 citations as hunted by the informants. Freelisting provided data on around twice the number of species obtained from recalls. During the last five hunting trips, urban hunters reported the hunting of 164 individuals of 18 species, representing 54.5% of the freelisted species. Rural hunters caught 146 individuals of 21 species, 60.0% of the freelisted species. We found a strong logistic relationship between the harvest rates, i.e., percentage of individuals hunted per species from recalls, and the freelisting percentage citations of game species, with the estimated and observed values of harvest rates highly matching (Pearson's R = 0.98, p < 0.0001). The freelisting method allowed a good estimate of the composition and the harvest rates of hunted species. The formula produced in this study can be used as a reference for further studies, enabling researchers to use freelisting effectively to assess the composition of hunted species and to address the difficulty of obtaining reliable data on species harvest rates in tropical forests, especially in short-term studies and contexts in which hunters distrust research.
Abrahams MI, Peres CA, Costa HCM (2018) Manioc losses by terrestrial vertebrates in western Brazilian Amazonia. Journal of Wildlife Management 82(4):734–746. doi: 10.1002/jwmg.21443
Alves RRN, Souto WMS, Fernandes-Ferreira H, Bezerra DMM, Barboza RRD, Vieira WLS (2018) The Importance of hunting in human societies. In: Alves RRN, Alburquerque UP (eds) Ethnozoology Animals in our Lives. 1 ed. Elsevier Inc., Amsterdam, pp. 95–118. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-809913-1.00007-7
Benítez-López A, Alkemade R, Schipper AM, Ingram DJ, Verweij PA, Eikelboom JAJ, Huijbregts MAJ (2017) The impact of hunting on tropical mammal and bird populations. Science 356(6334): 180–183. doi: 10.1126/science.aaj1891
El Bizri HR, Morcatty TQ, Ferreira JC, Mayor P, Vasconcelos Neto CFA, Valsecchi J, Nijman V, Fa JE (2020) Social and biological correlates of wild meat consumption and trade by rural communities in the Jutaí River basin, central Amazonia. Journal of Ethnobiology 40(2):183–201. doi: 10.2993/0278-0771-40.2.183
Chaves WA, Valle D, Tavares AS, von Mühlen EM, Wilcove DS (2021) Investigating illegal activities that affect biodiversity: the case of wildlife consumption in the Brazilian Amazon. Ecological Applications 31:e02402. doi: 10.1002/eap.2402
Garden JG, McAlpine CA, Possingham HP, Jones DN (2007) Using multiple survey methods to detect terrestrial reptiles and mammals: What are the most successful and cost-efficient combinations? Wildlife Research 34:218–227. doi: 10.1071/WR06111
IBGE (2017) IBGE Cidades - Porto Velho. [https://cidades.ibge.gov.br/brasil/ro/porto-velho/panorama] Accessed January 27, 2021
Isaac VJ, Almeida MC, Giarrizzo T, Deus CP, Vale R, Klein G, Begossi A (2015) Food consumption as an indicator of the conservation of natural resources in riverine communities of the Brazilian Amazon. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciencias 87(4):2229–2242. doi: 10.1590/0001-3765201520140250
Knoop SB, Morcatty TQ, El Bizri HR, Cheyne SM (2020) Age, religion, and atboos influence subsistence hunting by indigenous people of the lower Madeira river, Brazilian Amazon. Journal of Ethnobiology 40(2):131–148. doi: 10.2993/0278-0771-40.2.131
Nunes AV, Peres CA, Constantino P de AL, Santos BA, Fischer E (2019a) Irreplaceable socioeconomic value of wild meat extraction to local food security in rural Amazonia. Biological Conservation 236:171–179. doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2019.05.010
Nunes AV, Guariento RD, Santos BA, Fischer E (2019b) Wild meat sharing among non-indigenous people in the southwestern Amazon. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 73:26. doi: 10.1007/s00265-018-2628-x
Oliveira MÁ, Calouro AM (2019) Hunting agreements as a strategy for the conservation of species: the case of the Cazumbá-Iracema Extractive Reserve, state of Acre, Brazil. Oecologia Australis 23:357–366. doi: 10.4257/oeco.2019.2302.13
Oliveira RD, Calouro AM, Botelho ALM, Oliveira MA (2018) Calendário de caça na gestão da fauna cinegética Amazônica: implicações e recomendações. Biodiversidade Brasileira 8:304–316. doi: 10.37002/biobrasil.v%25vi%25i.788
Ramos CGS, Santos RB, Santos RWC, Oliveira MA (2020) Hunting in a community of waste pickers of recyclable materials in Rondônia, Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Ciências da Amazônia 9:4–15.
Rist J, Rowcliffe M, Cowlishaw G, Milner-Gulland EJ (2008) Evaluating measures of hunting effort in a bushmeat system. Biological Conservation 141(8):2086–2099. doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2008.06.005.
Santos S da S, Soares HK de L, Soares VMDS, de Lucena RFP (2019) Traditional knowledge and use of mammals in a rural community in the sertaneja depression (Paraíba state, northeast Brazil). Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge 18(1):94–103.
Sarti FM, Adams C, Morsello C, van Vliet N, Schor T, Yagüe B, Tellez L, Quiceno-Mesa MP, Cruz D (2015) Beyond protein intake: bushmeat as source of micronutrients in the amazon. Ecology and Society 20(4):22. doi: 10.5751/ES-07934-200422
Scabin AB, Peres CA (2021) Hunting pressure modulates the composition and size structure of terrestrial and arboreal vertebrates in Amazonian forests. Biodiversity and Conservation 30:3613–3632. doi: 10.1007/s10531-021-02266-9
Silva JS, Nascimento ALB, Alves RRN, Albuquerque UP (2020) Use of game fauna by Fulni-ô people in Northeastern Brazil: Implications for conservation. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 16:1–12. doi: 10.1186/s13002-020-00367-3
Tavares AS, Mayor P, Loureiro LF, Gilmore MP, Perez-Peña P, Bowler M, Lemos LP, Svensson MS, Nekaris KA-I, Nijman V, Valsecchi J, Morcatty TQ (2020) Widespread use of traditional techniques by local people for hunting the yellow-footed tortoise (Chelonoidis denticulatus) across the Amazon. Journal of Ethnobiology 40(2):268–280. doi: 10.2993/0278-0771-40.2.268
Valsecchi J, El Bizri H, Figueira J (2014) Subsistence hunting of Cuniculus paca in the middle of the Solimões river, Amazonas, Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Biology 74(3):560–568. doi: 10.1590/bjb.2014.0098
How to Cite
This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.